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Jam Mu

Jam Mu

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Published by: CHAITANYA SIVA on Dec 29, 2010
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Jammu & Kashmir State Information
Capital : Summer(May-October)- Srinagar, Winters (November-April)- JammuDistricts :14languages: Urdu, Kashmiri, Hindi, Dogri, Pahari, Ladakhi,
Introduction to Jammu & Kashmir 
Jammu & Kashmir is the jeweled crown of India with extravagant beauty of Himalayas.RajTaringini, the chronology of the Kashmir Kings written by Kalhana eulogises thebeauty of Kashmir as "Kasmira Parvati Paroksh; Tat Swami ch Maheswara". MeaningKashmir is as beautiful as Goddess Parvati manifest and its owner is Lord ShivaHimself. The Mughal Emperor exclaimed "Gar Bar-ru-e-Zamin Ast; Hamin Ast, HaminAst Hamin Asto. Meaning if there is paradise on this earth: This is it, this is it, this is it.Jammu and Kashmir presents the distinction of multifaceted, variegated and uniquecultural blend.
Geography of Jammu & Kashmir 
Jammu & Kashmir is situated between 32.17 degree and 36.58 degree north latitudeand 37.26 degree and 80.30 degree east longitude. The total area of the State is222,236 sq. kms including 78,114 sq kms under the illegal occupation of Pakistan and42,685 sq kms under that of China. The State is bounded by Pakistan, Afghanistan andChina from the West to the East. The State is well connected with rest of the country byair, rail and road . The Indian Airlines and private airlines operate regular flights toSrinagar, Jammu and Leh. The National Highway 1-A connects the capital cities of Srinagar and Jammu with rest of the country.
Brief History of Jammu & Kashmir 
Kashmir is mentioned in the epic Mahabharata. In 250 BC, Ashoka, the great Mauryanking, established the city of Pandrethan and built many viharas and chaityas. This saysmuch about the strategic importance that this region held even in that time. Somesources claim that Buddha also visited this region, though no proof is available tovalidate this theory. Kanishka, the great Kushana king, called the Third BuddhistCouncil at Harwan, near Srinagar, in the first century AD. This Council saw the divisionof Buddhism in two distinct streams called Hinayana and Mahayana. Kalhana, the firstIndian history writer, gave a vivid account of the history of Kashmir before the 10thcentury AD. Local kingdoms ruled extensively in this region until the 12th century ADwhen Muslims invaded the region. The greatest Muslim king of early medieval age inKashmir was Zain-ul-Abidin, who ascended the throne in AD 1420 and ruled up to 1470.His long rule contributed extensively to the spread of art, culture, music, and every other sphere in the life of Kashmir people. He also created a strong army and annexed many
regions nearby Kashmir. These were the time of golden rule in Kashmir when peaceand harmony prevailed. After the death of King Zain-ul-Abidin, a period of destructioncame calling to Kashmir and many raiders from outside looted the state and made thepeople and local rulers their captive.In 1587, Akbar annexed Kashmir into his vast empire. Jahangir, son of Akbar and nextMughal ruler, visited Kashmir 13 times and created two beautiful gardens on the bank of Dal Lake, namely, the Shalimar Bagh and Nishat Bagh. After two centuries of peaceand development, Kashmir came into the hands of the Pathans in 1752, when theAfghan ruler Abdul Shah Abdali attacked this region on the request of local noblemen.In 1819, the Sikhs under Maharaja Ranjit Singh annexed this region, but their empireremained in place only for 27 years. From 1846 to 1957, the Dogras ruled over thisregion when British defeated Ranjit Singh and handed over the administration of thisregion to Maharaja Gulab Singh.
Government of Jammu & Kashmir 
Jammu and Kashmir has a multi party democratic system of governance. Main politicalparties include the National Conference, the Indian National Congress (INC) and theJammu and Kashmir People's Democratic Party (PDP). Presently, Indian NationalCongress and its ally PDP hold the maximum number of seats in the Jammu andKashmir state assembly. After Mufti Mohammed Sayeed of the PDP completed his thirdyear as Chief Minister, as per the power sharing agreement between the PDP-Congressalliance reached in late 2002, Congress leader Ghulam Nabi Azad replaced Mufti onNovember 2005.
Districts of Jammu & Kashmir 
The Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir is divided into 14 districts - Anantnag,Baramulla, Budgam, Doda, Jammu, Kargil, Kathua, Kupwara, Leh, Poonch, Pulwama,Rajouri, Srinagar and Udhampur 
Economy of Jammu & Kashmir 
Jammu and Kashmir's economy is mostly dependent on farming and animal husbandry.Majority of the population of the state depends on agriculture. Paddy, wheat and maizeare the major crops. Barley, bajra and jowar are cultivated in some parts. Gram is grownin Ladakh. Though small, the manufacturing and services sector is growing rapidly.Tourism formed an important part of the Kashmiri economy. Although the tourismeconomy in the Kashmir Valley has been hit by the terrorism threat, Jammu and Ladakhcontinue to remain as popular tourist destinations. The Wood in Kashmir is also used tomake quality Cricket bats and as they are popularly known as Kashmir Willow.Handicrafts from Jammu and Kashmir have demand from both inside and outside thecountry. Coal, gypsum, and limestone are the major minerals produced in the state.
Jammu & Kashmir Travel Information
Srinagar is an ancient city and has many attractions that can attract even the mostunwilling of tourists to this magical land. Dal Lake, Nishat Bagh, Shalimar Bagh, andChashme Shahi are some of the best-known tourist spot in Srinagar. Jammu is thewinter capital of the state and next in importance after Srinagar. Most of the tourists whocome to the Jammu region have the Mata Vaishno Devi shrine as their destination,which is quite close by. However, the spirit of holiness permeates through the entirecity, so much so that Jammu is also known as the ‘City of Temples’. If Bahu Mata is thepresiding deity of Jammu, the dargah of Peer Budhan Ali Shah is the other shrine that isbelieved to protect the local people. The other major tourist attraction is the RaghunathTemple Complex, which is the largest temple in North India devoted to Lord Rama. Theconstruction of this temple was begun by Maharaja Gulab Singh in 1851 and completedby his son Ranbir Singh six years later. The temple of Maha Kali (better known as Bahuor Bawey Wali Mata), located in the Bahu Fort, is considered second only to MataVaishno Devi in terms of mystical power. The temple was built shortly after thecoronation of Maharaja Gulab Singh in 1822. Other temples in the city include the GauriKund Temple, Shudh Mahadev Temple, Shiva Temple, Peer Khoh Cave Temple,Ranbireshwar Temple, and the Parmandal Temple Complex.The most stunning site in Jammu is the Sheesh Mahal. The Pink Hall of the palace nowhouses the Dogra Art Museum, which has miniature paintings of the various hill schools.The museum also has the handwritten Persian manuscripts of the Shahnama andSikandernama. The palace was once the royal residence of the Dogra kings. Built as agroup of buildings around a courtyard, the palace has a commanding view of river Tawion one side and the city on the other. The Amar Mahal Palace Museum is a beautifulpalace of red sandstone, which stands amidst the most picturesque environs of Jammu.It offers a beautiful view of the Shivaliks in the north and the river Tawi in the south. Thiswas once the residential palace of Raja Amar Singh, but now it has been converted intoa museum. The museum has a golden throne made of 120 kg of pure gold. A treat for those interested in history is the town of Akhnoor, 32 km southwest of Jammu. Standingon the banks of the mighty river Chenab, the town tells the tragic tale of the lovers Sohniand Mahiwal. Along the riverbank are the majestic ruins of the Indus Valley Civilizationthat are of great historical importance. Patnitop, near the Vaishno Devi Temple, is fastbecoming a busy hill station and a good place to enjoy the nature in its eternity. Ladakhis home to the minority Buddhist community in the state. They have preserved their unique culture for the past hundreds of years. Leh is the headquarters of this region.The major points of attraction are the Leh Palace, Namgyal Tsemo Gompa, Sankar Gompa, Shanti Stupa, and Soma Gompa.
Rivers of Jammu & Kashmir 
Main Rivers in Jammu and Kashmir are Galquit River, Jhelum River, Shajsqem River,Shikar(South) River, Zanskar river and Khurana River .
Education in Jammu & Kashmir 

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