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Table Of Contents

Chapter 1 – Introduction to TCP/IP
Chapter Objectives
History of TCP/IP
The Internet Standards Process
Requests for Comments (RFCs)
TCP/IP Terminology
TCP/IP Components in Windows
Configuring the IPv4-based TCP/IP Component in Windows
Automatic Configuration
Manual Configuration
Installing and Configuring the IPv6-based TCP/IP Component in Windows
Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008
Windows XP and Windows Server 2003
Name Resolution Files in Windows
TCP/IP Tools in Windows
The Ipconfig Tool
The Ping Tool
Network Monitor
Chapter Summary
Chapter Glossary
Chapter 2 – Architectural Overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite
The TCP/IP Protocol Suite
Network Interface Layer
Internet Layer
Transport Layer
Application Layer
IPv4 Internet Layer
ARP Cache
ARP Process
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)
Fragmentation and Reassembly
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
IPv6 Internet Layer
IPv6
IPv6 Extension Headers
Fragmentation in IPv6
Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6 (ICMPv6)
Neighbor Discovery (ND)
Address Resolution
Router Discovery
Address Autoconfiguration
Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD)
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
TCP Ports
TCP Three-Way Handshake
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
UDP Ports
Packet Multiplexing and Demultiplexing
Application Programming Interfaces
Windows Sockets
NetBIOS
TCP/IP Naming Schemes in Windows
Host Names
NetBIOS Names
Chapter 3 – IP Addressing
IPv4 Addressing
IPv4 Address Syntax
Converting from Binary to Decimal
Converting from Decimal to Binary
IPv4 Address Prefixes
Prefix Length Notation
Dotted Decimal Notation
Types of IPv4 Addresses
IPv4 Unicast Addresses
Internet Address Classes
Modern Internet Addresses
Public Addresses
Illegal Addresses
Private Addresses
Automatic Private IP Addressing
Special IPv4 Addresses
Unicast IPv4 Addressing Guidelines
IPv4 Multicast Addresses
IPv4 Broadcast Addresses
IPv6 Addressing
IPv6 Address Syntax
Converting Between Binary and Hexadecimal
Compressing Zeros
IPv6 Address Prefixes
Types of IPv6 Addresses
IPv6 Unicast Addresses
• Global unicast addresses
Global Unicast Addresses
Link-Local Addresses
Site-Local Addresses
Zone IDs for Local-Use Addresses
Unique Local Addresses
Special IPv6 Addresses
Transition Addresses
IPv6 Interface Identifiers
EUI-64 Address-based Interface Identifiers
IEEE 802 Address Conversion Example
Temporary Address Interface Identifiers
IPv6 Multicast Addresses
Solicited-Node Multicast Address
IPv6 Anycast Addresses
IPv6 Addresses for a Host
IPv6 Addresses for a Router
Comparing IPv4 and IPv6 Addressing
Chapter 4 – Subnetting
Subnetting for IPv4
Determining the Subnet Prefix of an IPv4 Address Configuration
Subnet Mask Notation
Defining a Prefix Length
Subnetting Within an Octet
• Defining the subnetted address prefixes
Defining the Subnetted Address Prefixes
Defining the Range of IPv4 Addresses for Each Subnet
Subnetting Across an Octet Boundary
Defining the Subnetted address prefixes
Variable Length Subnetting
Variable Length Subnetting Example
Variable Length Subnetting and Routing
Subnetting for IPv6
Subnetting a Global or Unique Local Address Prefix
Determining the Number of Subnetting Bits
Enumerating Subnetted Address Prefixes
Chapter 5 – IP Routing
IP Routing Overview
Direct and Indirect Delivery
IP Routing Table
Routing Table Entries
Static and Dynamic Routing
Dynamic Routing
Routing Protocol Technologies
IPv4 Routing
IPv4 Routing with Windows
Contents of the IPv4 Routing Table
Route Determination Process
Default Gateway Setting
Default Route Metric
ICMP Router Discovery
Static Routes
Persistent Static Routes
RIP Listener
Routing for Disjoint Networks
Network Address Translation
How Network Address Translation Works
IPv6 Routing
IPv6 Routing Tables
IPv6 Routing Table Entry Types
Example Windows IPv6 Routing Table
IPv6 Routing Protocols
• RIPng for IPv6
• OSPF for IPv6
RIPng for IPv6
OSPF for IPv6
Integrated IS-IS for IPv6
IPv6 Route Aggregation and Summarization
Windows Support for IPv6 Static Routing
Configuring Hosts for IPv6 Routing
Routing Tools
Chapter 6 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DHCP Overview
Benefits of Using DHCP
Configuring TCP/IP Manually
Configuring TCP/IP Using DHCP
How DHCP Works
DHCP Messages and Client States
The Initializing State
The Selecting State
The Requesting State
The Bound State
The Renewing State
The Rebinding State
Restarting a Windows DHCP Client
The Windows DHCP Server Service
Installing the DHCP Server Service
DHCP and Active Directory Integration
BOOTP Support
DHCP Server Service Configuration
Properties of the DHCP Server
DHCP Scopes
Configuring a DHCP Scope
Deploying Multiple DHCP Servers
Superscopes
Options
Client Reservations
Fault Tolerance for Client Reservations
DHCP Options Classes
Vendor Classes
User Classes
The DHCP Relay Agent
Installing the DHCP Relay Agent
Address Autoconfiguration for IPv6
Autoconfigured Address States
Types of Autoconfiguration
Autoconfiguration Process
DHCPv6
DHCPv6 Messagesand Message Exchanges
DHCPv6 Support in Windows
Configuring DHCPv6 Scopes and Options
Installing and Configuring the DHCPv6 Relay Agent
Using the Ipconfig Tool
Verifying the IP Configuration
Renewing a Lease
Releasing a Lease
Setting and Displaying the Class ID
Chapter 7 – Host Name Resolution
TCP/IP Naming Schemes
Host Names Defined
Host Name Resolution Process
Resolving Names with a Hosts File
Resolving Names with LLMNR
Resolving Names with a DNS Server
Windows Methods of Resolving Host Names
The Hosts File
IPv4 Entries
IPv6 Entries
The DNS Client Resolver Cache
Chapter 8 – Domain Name System Overview
The Domain Name System
DNS Components
DNS Names
Domains and Subdomains
DNS Servers and the Internet
Zones
Name Resolution
DNS Name Resolution Example
Reverse Queries
Reverse Queries for IPv4 Addresses
Reverse Queries for IPv6 Addresses
Caching and TTL
Negative Caching
Round Robin Load Balancing
Name Server Roles
Forwarders
Forwarders in Non-exclusive Mode
Forwarders in Exclusive Mode
Caching-Only Name Servers
Resource Records and Zones
Resource Record Format
Resource Record Types
Delegation and Glue Records
The Root Hints File
Zone Transfers
Full Zone Transfer
Incremental Zone Transfer
DNS Notify
DNS Dynamic Update
Chapter 9 – Windows Support for DNS
The DNS Client Service
DNS Client Configuration
DHCP Configuration of the DNS Client Service
Manual Configuration of the DNS Client Service Using Network Connections
Manual Configuration Using Netsh
Configuration for Remote Access Clients
Configuration of DNS Settings Using Group Policy
Name Resolution Behavior
Name Resolution for FQDNs
Name Resolution for Single-Label, Unqualified Domain Names
Name Resolution for Multiple-Label, Unqualified Domain Names
The DNS Server Service
Installing the DNS Server Service
DNS and Active Directory
Active Directory Location Service
Storage of Zones Integrated with Active Directory
DNS Server Service Configuration
Properties of the DNS Server
Maintaining Zones
• Forward lookup zones
Forward Lookup Zones
Reverse Lookup Zones
Delegation
Resource Records
• IPv4 address records
IPv4 Address Records
IPv6 Address Records
Pointer Records
DNS Traffic Over IPv6
Using Locally Configured Unicast Addresses
Using Well-Known Unicast Addresses
Dynamic Update and Secure Dynamic Update
How Computers Running Windows Update their DNS Names
DNS Dynamic Update Process
Configuring DNS Dynamic Update
Secure Dynamic Update
DNS and WINS Integration
How WINS Lookup Works
WINS Reverse Lookup
Using the Nslookup Tool
Nslookup Modes
Nslookup Syntax
Examples of Nslookup Usage
Example 1: Nslookup in Interactive Mode
Example 2: Nslookup and Forward Queries
Example 3: Nslookup Forward Query Using Another DNS Server
Example 4: Nslookup Debug Information
Example 5: Nslookup Reverse Query
Chapter 10 – TCP/IP End-to-End Delivery
End-to-End IPv4 Delivery Process
IPv4 on the Source Host
IPv4 on the Router
TCP SYN Segment to the Web Server
TCP SYN-ACK Segment to the Web Client
TCP ACK Segment to the Web Server
HTTP Get Message to the Web Server
HTTP Get-Response Message to the Web Client
End-to-End IPv6 Delivery Process
IPv6 on the Source Host
IPv6 on the Router
IPv6 on the Destination Host
Step-by-Step IPv6 Traffic Example
HTTP Get Segment to the Web Server
HTTP Get-Response Segment to the Web Client
Chapter 11 – NetBIOS over TCP/IP
NetBIOS over TCP/IP Overview
Enabling NetBIOS over TCP/IP
Common NetBIOS Names
NetBIOS Name Registration, Resolution, and Release
Segmenting NetBIOS Names with the NetBIOS Scope ID
NetBIOS Name Resolution
Resolving Local NetBIOS Names Using a Broadcast
Limitations of Broadcasts
Resolving Names with a NetBIOS Name Server
Windows Methods of Resolving NetBIOS Names
NetBIOS Node Types
Using the Lmhosts File
Predefined Keywords
Using a Centralized Lmhosts File
Creating Lmhosts Entries for Specific NetBIOS Names
Name Resolution Problems Using Lmhosts
The Nbtstat Tool
Chapter 12 – Windows Internet Name Service Overview
Introduction to WINS
How WINS Works
Name Registration
When a Duplicate Name Is Found
When WINS Servers are Unavailable
Name Renewal
Name Refresh Request
Name Refresh Response
Name Release
The WINS Client
DHCP Configuration of a WINS Client
Manual Configuration of the WINS Client Using Network Connections
Manual Configuration of the WINS Client Using Netsh
Configuration of the WINS Client for Remote Access Clients
The WINS Server Service
Installing the WINS Server Service
Properties of the WINS Server
Static Entries for Non-WINS Clients
Database Replication Between WINS Servers
Chapter 13 – Internet Protocol Security and Packet Filtering
IPsec and Packet Filtering Overview
IPsec
Security Properties of IPsec-protected Communications
IPsec Protocols
IPsec Modes
Transport Mode
Tunnel Mode
Negotiation Phases
Phase I or Main Mode Negotiation
Phase II or Quick Mode Negotiation
Connection Security Rules
IPsec Policy Settings
• General IPsec policy settings
General IPsec Policy Settings
Rules
Default Response Rule
Filter List
Filter Settings
Filter Action
IPsec Security Methods
Custom Security Methods
Authentication
Tunnel Endpoint
Connection Type
IPsec for IPv6 Traffic
Packet Filtering
Windows Firewall
Configuring Rules with the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security Snap-in
Configuring Windows Firewall with Control Panel
How Windows Firewall Works
Internet Connection Firewall (ICF)
TCP/IP Filtering
Packet Filtering with Routing and Remote Access
Basic Firewall
IP Packet Filtering
IPv6 Packet Filtering
IPv6 Packet Filtering with Routing and Remote Access
Basic IPv6 Firewall
IPv6 ICF
Chapter 14 – Virtual Private Networking
Virtual Private Networking Overview
Components of a VPN
Attributes of a VPN Connection
User Authentication
Encapsulation
Encryption
Types of VPN Connections
Remote Access
Site-to-Site
VPN Protocols
• Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
• Phase 1: PPP Link Establishment
• Phase 2: User Authentication
Phase 1: PPP Link Establishment
Phase 2: User Authentication
Phase 3: PPP Callback Control
Phase 4: Invoking Network Layer Protocol(s)
Data-Transfer Phase
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)
Layer Two Tunneling Protocol with IPsec (L2TP/IPsec)
Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP)
Remote Access VPN Connections
VPN Client Support
Network Connections Folder
Connection Manager
• Connection Manager
VPN Server Support
VPN Server Support in Windows Vista
VPN Server Support in Windows XP
IP Address Assignment and Routing and Remote Access
Obtaining IPv4 Addresses via DHCP
Obtaining IPv4 Addresses from a Static Address Pool
The Process for Setting Up a Remote Access VPN Connection
Step 1: Logical Link Setup
Step 2: PPP Connection Setup
Step 3: Remote Access VPN Client Registration
Site-to-Site VPN Connections
Configuring a Site-to-Site VPN Connection
Configuring a Demand-dial Interface
Connection Example for a Site-to-Site VPN
The Connection Process for Site-to-Site VPNs
Using RADIUS for Network Access Authentication
RADIUS Components
Access Clients
Access Servers
RADIUS Servers
User Account Databases
RADIUS Proxies
NPS or IAS as a RADIUS Server
Network and Remote Access Policies
Network or Remote Access Policy Conditions and Restrictions
NPS or IAS as a RADIUS Proxy
Connection Request Processing
Chapter 15 – IPv6 Transition Technologies
Introduction to IPv6 Transition Technologies
IPv6 Transition Mechanisms
• Dual stack or dual IP layer architectures
Dual Stack or Dual IP Layer Architectures
DNS Infrastructure
Address Selection Rules
IPv6 Over IPv4 Tunneling
Tunneling Configurations
Types of Tunnels
ISATAP
Using an ISATAP Router
Resolving the ISATAP Name
Using the netsh interface isatap set router Command
Setting up an ISATAP Router
6to4
6to4 Support in Windows
Migrating to IPv6
Chapter 16 – Troubleshooting TCP/IP
Identifying the Problem Source
Windows Troubleshooting Tools
Troubleshooting IPv4
Verifying IPv4 Connectivity
• Repair the connection
Repair the Connection
Verify Configuration
Manage Configuration
Verify Reachability
Check Packet Filtering
View and Manage the Local IPv4 Routing Table
Verify Router Reliability
Verifying DNS Name Resolution for IPv4 Addresses
• Verify DNS configuration
Verify DNS Configuration
Display and Flush the DNS Client Resolver Cache
Test DNS Name Resolution with Ping
Use the Nslookup Tool to View DNS Server Responses
Verifying NetBIOS Name Resolution
Verify NetBIOS over TCP/IP Configuration
Display and Reload the NetBIOS Name Cache
Test NetBIOS Name Resolution with Nbtstat
Verifying IPv4-based TCP Sessions
• Check for packet filtering
Check for Packet Filtering
Verify TCP Session Establishment
Verify NetBIOS Sessions
Troubleshooting IPv6
Verifying IPv6 Connectivity
• Verify configuration
View and Manage the IPv6 Routing Table
Verifying DNS Name Resolution for IPv6 Addresses
Test DNS Name Resolution with the Ping Tool
Verifying IPv6-based TCP Connections
Verify TCP Connection Establishment
Appendix A – IP Multicast
Overview of IP Multicast
IP Multicast-Enabled Intranet
Host Support for IP Multicast
Router Support for IP Multicast
Multicast Addresses
Mapping IPv4 Multicast to MAC-Layer Multicast
Solicited-Node Address
Mapping IPv6 Multicast to MAC-Layer Multicast
Multicast Subnet Membership Management
IGMP for IPv4
MLD for IPv6
IPv4 Multicast Forwarding Support in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2003
IPv4 Multicast Forwarding
IGMP Routing Protocol Component
• IGMP router mode
IGMP Router Mode
IGMP Proxy Mode
IPv4 Multicast Address Allocation with MADCAP
Using Multicast Scopes
Reliable Multicast with Pragmatic General Multicast (PGM)
PGM Overview
Adding and Using the Reliable Multicast Protocol
Adding the Reliable Multicast Protocol
Writing PGM-enabled Applications
How PGM and the Reliable Multicast Protocol Works
Appendix B – Simple Network Management Protocol
SNMP Overview
The Management Information Base
The Hierarchical Name Tree
SNMP Messages
SNMP Communities
How SNMP Works
Windows SNMP Service
Installing and Configuring the SNMP Service
Agent Tab
Traps Tab
Security Tab
Evntcmd Tool
Appendix C – Computer Browser Service
Computer Browsing Overview
Browsing Collection and Distribution
The Collection Process
The Distribution Process
Servicing Browse Client Requests
• The list of servers within its LAN group
Obtaining the List of Servers Within its LAN Group
Obtaining the List of Servers Within Another LAN Group
Obtaining the List of Shares on a Server
The Computer Browser Service on Computers Running Windows Server 2008
Computer Browser Service Operation on an IPv4 Network
• Domain spanning an IPv4 router
Domain Spanning an IPv4 Router
Collection and Distribution Process
Configuring the Lmhosts File for an Domain that Spans IPv4 Routers
Multiple Domains Separated By IPv4 Routers
• Collection and distribution process
Servicing WINS-enabled Client Requests for Remote Domains
Servicing non-WINS Client Requests for Remote Domains
Workgroup Spanning an IPv4 Router
Multiple Workgroups Separated By IPv4 Routers
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Tcpip Fund

Tcpip Fund

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