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BYZANTIUM 395-1057

BYZANTIUM 395-1057

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Published by oleevaer
Biographical genealogies (prosopography) of the major noble families which ruled Byzantium.
by Charles Cawley
Biographical genealogies (prosopography) of the major noble families which ruled Byzantium.
by Charles Cawley

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Published by: oleevaer on Dec 29, 2010
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BYZANTIUM395-1057
INTRODUCTIONChapter 1. ROMAN EMPERORS in the EAST 395-717A. EMPERORS 395-491ARCADIUS 395-408, THEODOSIUS II 402-450MARCIANUS 450-457LEON I 457-474LEON II 474, ZENON 474-491B. FAMILY of EMPEROR ANASTASIUSANASTASIUS 491-518C. FAMILY of EMPEROR IUSTINIAN IIUSTINUS I 518-527, IUSTINIAN I 527-565IUSTINUS II 565-578D. FAMILY of EMPEROR TIBERIUS IITIBERIUS II 578-582E. FAMILY of EMPEROR MAURITIUSMAURITIUS 582-602F. FAMILY of EMPEROR PHOKASPHOKAS 602-610G. FAMILY of EMPEROR HERAKLIUSHERAKLIUS 610-641, HERAKLEONAS 641KONSTANTINOS III 641, KONSTANS II 641-668, KONSTANTINOS IV 668-685, IUSTINIAN II 685-695, 705-711H. EMPERORS 695-717LEONTIUS 695-698, TIBERIUS III 698-705, PHILIPPICUS 711-713, ANASTASIUS II 713-716,THEODOSIUS III 715-717Chapter 2. EMPERORS 717-802 (ISAURIAN DYNASTY)LEON III 717-741KONSTANTINOS V 741-775LEON IV 775-780, KONSTANTINOS VI 780-797, EIRENE 797-802Chapter 3. EMPERORS 802-813 (DYNASTIES of NIKEPHOROS and RANGABE)A. NIKEPHOROS NIKEPHOROS I 802-811, STAVRAKIOS 811-812B. RANGABEMIKHAEL I 811-813Chapter 4. EMPEROR 813-820 (ARMENIAN DYNASTY)LEON V 813-820Chapter 5. EMPERORS 820-867 (DYNASTY of AMORION)A. EMPERORS 820-867MIKHAEL II 820-829THEOPHILOS 829-842, MIKHAEL III 842-867B. FAMILY of AUGUSTA THEODORAChapter 6. EMPERORS 867-1057 (MACEDONIAN DYNASTY)BASILEIOS I 867-886, ALEXANDER 912-913LEON VI 886-912KONSTANTINOS VII 913-959ROMANOS II 959-963, BASILEIOS II 963-1025KONSTANTINOS VIII 1025-1028, ZOE 1042-1052, THEODORA 1054-1056Chapter 7. EMPERORS 920-945 (LEKAPENOS)1
 
ROMANOS I 920-944Chapter 8. EMPEROR 963-969 (PHOKAS) NIKEPHOROS II 963-969Chapter 9. EMPEROR 969-976 (TZIMISCES)IOANNES I 969-976Chapter 10. ANTI-EMPEROR 978 (SKLEROS)Chapter 11. EMPEROR 1028-1034 (ARGYROS)ROMANOS III 1028-1034Chapter 12. EMPEROR 1034-1042 (from PAPHLAGONIA)MIKHAEL IV 1034-1041, MIKHAEL V 1041-1042Chapter 13. EMPEROR 1042-1055 (MONOMACHOS)KONSTANTINOS IX 1042-1055Chapter 14. EMPEROR 1056-1057 (STRATIOTIKOS)MIKHAEL VI 1056-1057 
INTRODUCTION
 The name "Byzantium", as applied to the empire which developed around the city of Constantinople, is amisnomer. However, there appears to be no other expression which should more appropriately be used.Cyril Mango has described the word as a "term of convenience when it is not a term of inconvenience",emphasising that it was never applied to the empire while it existed and only became commonly used inEnglish in the twentieth century[1]. This is not entirely correct as Ioannes Kantakuzenus regularly refers to"Βυζάντιον" in his work, for example when recording the arrival from Savoie of Empress Anna for her marriage in 1326 to Emperor Andronikos III[2], but this appears to be an exception among primary sources.The emperor in Constantinople originally bore the title imperator augustus, emphasising his status as directsuccessor to the Roman emperors. After the victory of Emperor Heraklius over the Persians in 630, theemperor adopted the title basileus, although the empresses still bore the title avgusta. From about the timeByzantium recognised Charlemagne's title as "Emperor" at Aix-la-Chapelle in 812, it appears that theemperors in Byzantium more frequently used the title Βασιλεύς Ρωμαίων ["Roman Emperor"], presumablyto distinguish themselves from the emperor in the west[3]. The emperor added autokrator to his title after Symeon of Bulgaria was crowned Tsar and Autocrat of the Bulgarians at Constantinople in 913 by thePatriarch[4].The emperor was elected, his election being confirmed by acclamation of the people and (until the accessionof Emperor Alexios I Komnenos in 1081) by the senate. The custom developed of the emperor nominatinghis future successor, and associating him in the government as co-emperor, during his lifetime. The firstexample was the coronation in 741 of the future Emperor Leon IV by his father Emperor Konstantinos V.During the late 11th century, the practice became regular, following the coronation in 1092 of the futureEmperor Ioannes II as co-emperor to his father Emperor Alexios I.Political power in the empire shifted between dynasties, and within each dynasty, frequently, in most casesreflecting the military strength of the most powerful imperial candidate of the time. Corruption and profligacy were a constant feature of the different imperial families, rising to unprecedented levels duringthe rule of the Angelos dynasty during the late 12th and early 13th centuries. The weakened empire, unableto withstand powerful pressures from east and west, its military might negligible following years of neglectand under-spending, fell to the armies of the Fourth Crusade in 1204 to be replaced by the equallyineffective Latin empire of Constantinople. The Byzantine imperial tradition was maintained in thetruncated imperial centres of Nikaia in Asia Minor, and Thessaloniki and Epirus in mainland Greece. Bythe time the Palaiologos dynasty recaptured Constantinople from the Latins in 1261, it was too late to revivethe political force of the Byzantine empire. Imperial territory was gradually eaten away until, by the time of 2
 
the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453, little land remained under imperial administration apartfrom the city itself.A complicated hierarchy of titles developed in the empire, complementing the equally rigid hierarchy of functions within the imperial government. According to the Kleterologos, composed in the 9th century byPhiloteos, functions were divided into three categories, relating to the imperial army, the provincial armyand the civil administration, with corresponding titles for each level of function within each category. As anindividual rose in the hierarchy of functions, he changed his title according to the pre-set rules. The newsystem of titles invented by Emperor Alexios I was based on the hierarchy of family relationship with theemperor. The first class comprised the emperor and his immediate family (wife, mother, co-emperor), thesébastokrator (sons, brothers, paternal uncles and great-uncles of the emperor, and the gambroi, sons-in-law, brothers-in-law, those married to the emperor's paternal aunts). The second class consisted of the sébastos,which included all sons of a sébastokrator.Family names evolved into a symbol of nobility, leading to individuals adding the family names of spouses,mothers or grandmothers to their own family names, although the process does not appear to have followedany particular rules. The practice developed over time into adopting multiple names from any members of an individual's family, with extremely confusing results which create difficulties in identifying the agnaticfamily to which a person belonged.This document shows the descendants in the male line of all Roman and Byzantine families which at some point in time provided an emperor or anti-emperor in the east between 395 and 1057. Later imperialfamilies are treated in the separate documents BYZANTIUM 1057-1204 and BYZANTIUM 1261-1453.Byzantine nobles families which never rose to imperial rank are set out in the document BYZANTINE NOBILITY.Byzantine sources are numerous. The focus has been on extracting information which relates primarily toestablishing the relationships in the Byzantine imperial and noble families, although brief reference is alsomade to the principal political and administrative events in Byzantine history. Where the information indifferent sources is the same, generally only a single source has been quoted. Where the sources contradictor complement each other, every effort has been made to include information from all relevantdocumentation. The sources consulted are principally those included in the nineteenth century CorpusScriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ series. The extracts are quoted from the Latin translations rather than theoriginal Greek (unless a conflict is obvious), because it is assumed that more users of Medieval Lands will be familiar with Latin than Greek (also because the compiler has only restricted knowledge of the Greek language).The main primary sources which have so far been consulted in detail for the preparation of the presentdocument are Iordanes (History of the Romans)[5], the Chronicle of Marcellinus[6], the Chronicle of Cassiodorus[7], the Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon[8], the Chronographia of Theophanes[9], theChronographia of Ioannes Malalas[10], Procopius's History of the Wars[11], the History of Patriarch Nikephoros[12], the Historia of Theophylactus Simocattæ[13], the Chronographia of Leo Grammaticus[14],De Ceremoniis[15] and De Administrando Imperio[16] of Emperor Konstantinos VII Porphyrogennetos, theRegum of Genesius[17], Theophanes Continuatus[18], the Annales of Symeon Magister (Pseudo-Symeon)[19], the Vitæ Recentiorum Imperatorum of Georgius Monachus[20], the Michælis Ducæ NepotisHistoria[21], the Chronographia of Mikhael Psellos[22], the Historia of Leo Diaconus[23], the Historia of  Niketas Choniates[24], and the Historia of Nikephoros Briennios[25]. References in western primarysources to the Byzantine emperors and their families have also been incorporated.Reference has also been made to the CD Rom Prosopography of the Byzantine Empire I (641-867)[26], both to cross-check primary source material and for direct quotes from less well-known sources. However,some caution is needed when consulting prosopographical compilations of this sort. Although they are of great use in identifying and comparing sources, it can be more difficult for them to reflect the context inwhich the information is included in the original primary sources. The result is that erroneous information3

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