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Antibiotics Study Guide for Nurses

Antibiotics Study Guide for Nurses

Ratings: (0)|Views: 2,555 |Likes:
Published by Lauren Trotman
A brief overview of antibiotics for nurses
A brief overview of antibiotics for nurses

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Published by: Lauren Trotman on Dec 30, 2010
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03/05/2014

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 Antibiotics
L.Trotman,1
Class&Categories&ExamplesMOA&IndicationsHowSuppliedAdministrationCommon AdverseEffectsContra-indicationsMonitoringParametersPenicillin
 
Naturalpenicillins
 
penicillin(Veetids)
 
Aminopenicillins
 
amoxicillin(Amoxil)
 
Extendedspectrum
 
ticarcillin(Ticar)
 
Penicillinase-resistant
 
dicloxacillin(Dynapen)InhibitscellwallsynthesisIndications:
 
Gram(+)
 
Gram(-)
 
Anaerobes
 
Oral(tablet,capsule,chewable,solutions,suspensions)
 
Parenteral(IMorIV)
 
Timedependent–notconcentration(scheduledtimeintervalsnecessary=lessvariationinpeak&troughbloodlevels)
 
Oral:suspensioncanbemixedw/otherliquids(formula,milk,water,juice)
 
Oral:maybetakenwithfood
 
Rash
 
GI:N/V/D
 
Generallywell-tolerated
 
AllergyEfficacy
 
s/sximprovementSafety
 
Allergicrxn
 
Rash
 
GI
Cephalosporins
(structurally&functionallysimilartopenicillins)
 
1
st 
generation
 
cephalexin(Keflex)
 
2
nd
generation
 
cefuroxime(Ceftin)
 
3
rd
generation
 
ceftriaxone(Rocephin)
 
4
th
generation(havebroaderspectrumofactivity)
 
cefepime(Maxipime)*eachnewergenerationtendstohavegreaterGram(-)activitythanprecedingInhibitscellwallsynthesisIndications:
 
Gram(+)
 
Gram(-)
 
Anaerobes
 
Oral(tab,capsule,chewable,solutions,suspensions)
 
Parenteral(IMorIV)
 
Timedependent–notconcentration(scheduledtimeintervalsnecessary=lessvariationinpeak&troughbloodlevels)
 
Oral:suspensioncanbemixedw/otherliquids(formula,milk,water,juice)
 
Oral:maybetakenwithfood
 
Rash
 
GI:N/V/D
 
Generallywell-tolerated
 
Allergy
 
Cross-reactivity(needtocautionthosew/penicillinallergiesofverysmallchance)Efficacy
 
s/sximprovementSafety
 
Allergicrxn
 
Rash
 
GI
 
 Antibiotics
L.Trotman,2
Class&Categories&ExamplesMOA&IndicationsHowSuppliedAdministrationCommon AdverseEffectsContra-indicationsMonitoringParametersVancomycin
 
(Vancocin)InhibitscellwallsynthesisIndications:Narrowspectrum
 
Gram(+)only
 
Clostridium(C.dif)
 
Oral:onlyfor
Clostridium
(onlyworksingut)
 
IV
 
Oral:maybetakenw/food
 
IV:infusionoveratleast60minsIV
 
Redmansyndrome(NOTallergy:occursifinfusedtoorapidly)
 
Nephrotoxicity
 
Ototoxicity
 
Renalimpairment
 
ConcomitantnephrotoxicorototoxicmedsEfficacy
 
Vancolevels
 
s/sximprovementSafety
 
Vancolevels
 
Renalfxn
Sulfonamides
 
sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim(Bactrim,Septra)BlocksnutrientuseIndications:
 
Gram(+)
 
EntericGram(-)
 
Atypicals
 
Oral(taborsuspension)
 
IV
 
Topical
 
Oral:takew/8ozwater
 
IV:mustdilute&infuseover60-90mins
 
Rash
 
GI:N/V/anorexia
 
Allergy
 
PregnancyEfficacy
 
s/sxmanagementSafety
 
Allergicrxn
 
Rash
 
GI
Macrolides
 
azithromycin(Zithromax)
 
clarithromycin(Biaxin)
 
erythromycin(Ery-tab)InhibitsproteinsynthesisIndications:
 
Gram(+)
 
Non-entericGram(-)
 
Atypicals
 
Oral
 
IV
 
Topical(gelorointment)
 
Oral:mustcheckeachifcanbetakenw/food
 
GI:N/V/D(directirritant,
GImotility)
 
Allergy
 
Druginteractions(CYP3A4)
 
QTprolongation&ventriculararrhythmiasEfficacy
 
s/sximprovementSafety
 
Allergicrxn
 
GI
Tetracyclines
 
doxycycline(Doryx)InhibitsproteinsynthesisIndications:
 
Gram(+)
 
EntericGram(-)
 
Atypicals
 
Oral
 
IV
 
Oral:takew/8ozwater&food
 
IV:centralline&slowb/cirritatingtoveins
 
GI:N/V/D
 
Photosensitivity
 
Toothdiscoloration(inchildren)
 
Children
8y/o
 
Pregnancy
 
AllergiesrareEfficacy
 
s/sximprovementSafety
 
GI

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