# Welcome back

## Find a book, put up your feet, stay awhile

Sign in with Facebook

Sorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

or

Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more

Download

Standard view

Full view

of .

Look up keyword

Like this

Share on social networks

3Activity

×

0 of .

Results for: No results containing your search query

P. 1

CirclesRatings: (0)|Views: 241|Likes: 3

Published by Hassan Kumar G

For iit jee

For iit jee

See more

See less

https://www.scribd.com/doc/46097124/Circles

02/23/2014

text

original

LOCUSLOCUSLOCUSLOCUSLOCUS

1Mathematics / Circles

Circles

As we know very well from pure geometry, a circle is a geometrical figure described by a moving point in theEuclidean plane such that its distance from a fixed point is always constant. The fixed point is called the centre of the circle while the fixed distance is called the radius of the circle.Moving over to a co-ordinate system, let us denote the centre

C

of the circle by (

x

0

,

y

0

) and the radius by

r

. For any point

P

(

x

,

y

) lying on the circle, the length

PC

must be equal to

r

. Using the distance formula for

PC

, wetherefore obtain:

( ) ( )

22200

:Equationofthecircle

x x y y r

− + − =

This equation must be satisfied by every point

P

(

x

,

y

) lying on the circle; therefore, this is the equation that uniquelydescribes the given circle. We simply call it the

equation of the circle

, with centre (

x

0

,

y

0

) and radius

r

.For example, consider the circle with its centre at (1, 1) and radius equal to unity:

Fig - 01(1,1)

y

A circle with centre(1 1)and1

, r =

x

The equation of the this circle is

( ) ( )

222

111

x y

− + − =

22

2210

x y x y

⇒ + − − + =

Find the equation of the circle passing through the points (0, 0) , (3, 0) and (1, 2).

Section - 1EQUATIONS DESCRIBING CIRCLES

Example – 01

LOCUSLOCUSLOCUSLOCUSLOCUS

2Mathematics / Circles

Solution:

To write the equation of the required circle, we must find its centre and radius.Recall from pure geometry that a circle can always be drawn through three non-collinear points. Thiscan be done as follows: join the points to form a triangle. Draw the perpendicular bisectors of any of the two sides of this triangle. Their point of intersection gives us the centre

C

. The distance of

C

fromany of the vertices gives the radius

r

of the circles:

C

is the centre of the circle passing

Fig - 02

C PQ R

through

P

,

Q

,

R

.

CP

=

CQ

=

CR

=

r

.

We apply this result to the current example:The equation of the perpendicular bisector of

OB

is

32

x

=

The equation of the perpendicular bisector

y xO

(0,0)

B

(3,0)

C A

(1, 2)Fig - 03

of

OA

is

11122

y x

−= −−

1222

y x

⇒ − = −

5202

x y

⇒ + − =

The point

C

is the intersection of the two angle bisectors

31,22

C

⇒ ≡

We can now easily evaluate the radius

r

as the length

OC

:

9110442

r OC

= = + =

Finally, the equation of the required circle becomes:

22

3110224

x y

− + − =

We will subsequently see another method to solve this type of questions.

LOCUSLOCUSLOCUSLOCUSLOCUS

3Mathematics / Circles

Find the equation of the circle which touches the co-ordinate axes and whose centre lies on the line

23

x y

− =

Solution:

A circle of radius

r

touching the co-ordinate axes can be in one of the four following configurations,with four corresponding equations mentioned alongside:

Fig - 04(, )

rr y x

(– )+

x r

2

(– ) =

y rr

22

(– , )

rr y x

( )+

x +r

2

(– ) =

y rr

22

()

r – r y x

(– )+

x r

2

( ) =

y +rr

22

(– , )

rr

–

y x

( )+

x +r

2

( ) =

y +rr

22

Note from these four possible cases that the centre of such a circle either lies on

y

=

x

or on

y

= –

x.

In the current example, the centre is also given to lie on

x

– 2

y

= 3. Thus, there will be two circles,with the two centres being given by the point of intersection

y

=

x

and

y

= –

x

with

x

– 2

y

=3.

( )

1

and233,3

y x x y C

= − = ⇒ ≡ −

⇒

Equation of the circle is

( ) ( )

22

339

x y

+ + − =

( )

2

and231,1

y x x y C

= − − = ⇒ ≡ −

⇒

Equation of the circle is

( ) ( )

22

111

x y

− + + =

Find the equation of the circle with radius 5 and which touches another circle

22

24200

x y x y

+ − − − =

externallyat the point (5, 5)

Solution:

Let us first try to rearrange the equation of the given circle in the standard form from which we’ll beable to deduce its centre and radius:

22

24200

x y x y

+ − − − =

( ) ( )

22

1225

x y

⇒ − + − =

Example – 02Example – 03

- Read and print without ads
- Download to keep your version
- Edit, email or read offline

© Copyright 2015 Scribd Inc.

Language:

Choose the language in which you want to experience Scribd:

Sign in with Facebook

Sorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

or

Password Reset Email Sent

Join with Facebook

Sorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

or

By joining, you agree to our

read free for one month

Personalized recommendationsbased on books you love

Syncing across all your devices

Join with Facebook

or Join with EmailSorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

Already a member? Sign in.

By joining, you agree to our

to download

Personalized recommendationsbased on books you love

Syncing across all your devices

Continue with Facebook

Sign inJoin with emailSorry, we are unable to log you in via Facebook at this time. Please try again later.

By joining, you agree to our

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

CANCEL

OK

You've been reading!

NO, THANKS

OK

scribd