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Circles

Circles

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Published by Hassan Kumar G
For iit jee
For iit jee

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Published by: Hassan Kumar G on Dec 31, 2010
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02/23/2014

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LOCUSLOCUSLOCUSLOCUSLOCUS
1Mathematics / Circles
Circles
As we know very well from pure geometry, a circle is a geometrical figure described by a moving point in theEuclidean plane such that its distance from a fixed point is always constant. The fixed point is called the centre of the circle while the fixed distance is called the radius of the circle.Moving over to a co-ordinate system, let us denote the centre
of the circle by (
 x
0
,
 y
0
) and the radius by
. For any point
P
(
 x
,
 y
) lying on the circle, the length
PC 
must be equal to
. Using the distance formula for 
PC 
, wetherefore obtain:
( ) ( )
22200
:Equationofthecircle
 x x y y
+ =
This equation must be satisfied by every point
P
(
 x
,
y
) lying on the circle; therefore, this is the equation that uniquelydescribes the given circle. We simply call it the
equation of the circle
, with centre (
 x
0
,
 y
0
) and radius
.For example, consider the circle with its centre at (1, 1) and radius equal to unity:
Fig - 01(1,1)
 y
A circle with centre(1 1)and1
 , r =
 x
The equation of the this circle is
( ) ( )
222
111
 x y
− + =
22
2210
 x y x y
+ + =
Find the equation of the circle passing through the points (0, 0) , (3, 0) and (1, 2).
Section - 1EQUATIONS DESCRIBING CIRCLES
Example – 01
 
LOCUSLOCUSLOCUSLOCUSLOCUS
2Mathematics / Circles
Solution:
To write the equation of the required circle, we must find its centre and radius.Recall from pure geometry that a circle can always be drawn through three non-collinear points. Thiscan be done as follows: join the points to form a triangle. Draw the perpendicular bisectors of any of the two sides of this triangle. Their point of intersection gives us the centre
. The distance of 
fromany of the vertices gives the radius
of the circles:
is the centre of the circle passing
 
Fig - 02
PQ R
through
P
,
Q
,
 R
.
CP
=
CQ
=
CR
=
.
We apply this result to the current example:The equation of the perpendicular bisector of 
OB
is 
32
 x
=
The equation of the perpendicular bisector 
 y xO
(0,0)
 B
(3,0)
 A
(1, 2)Fig - 03
of 
OA
is
11122
 y x
= −
1222
 y x
=
5202
 x y
+ =
The point
is the intersection of the two angle bisectors
31,22
   
We can now easily evaluate the radius
as the length
OC 
:
9110442
r OC 
= = + =
Finally, the equation of the required circle becomes:
22
3110224
 x y
 + =  
We will subsequently see another method to solve this type of questions.
 
LOCUSLOCUSLOCUSLOCUSLOCUS
3Mathematics / Circles
Find the equation of the circle which touches the co-ordinate axes and whose centre lies on the line
23
 x y
=
Solution:
A circle of radius
touching the co-ordinate axes can be in one of the four following configurations,with four corresponding equations mentioned alongside: 
Fig - 04(, )
r y x
()+
 x
2
() =
 y r
22
(– , )
r y x
( )+
 x +
2
() =
 y r
22
()
r – r  y x
()+
 x
2
( ) =
 y +r
22
(– , )
r
 – 
 y x
( )+
 x +
2
( ) =
 y +r
22
 Note from these four possible cases that the centre of such a circle either lies on
 y
=
 x
or on
 y
= – 
 x.
In the current example, the centre is also given to lie on
x
2
 y
= 3. Thus, there will be two circles,with the two centres being given by the point of intersection
 y
=
 x
and
 y
= – 
 x
with
 x
2
 y
=3.
( )
1
and233,3
 y x x y
= =
Equation of the circle is
( ) ( )
22
339
 x y
+ + =
( )
2
and231,1
 y x x y
= =
Equation of the circle is
( ) ( )
22
111
 x y
− + + =
 Find the equation of the circle with radius 5 and which touches another circle
22
24200
 x y x y
+ − − − =
externallyat the point (5, 5)
Solution:
Let us first try to rearrange the equation of the given circle in the standard form from which we’ll beable to deduce its centre and radius:
22
24200
 x y x y
+ − − − =
( ) ( )
22
1225
 x y
+ =
Example – 02Example – 03

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