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Development of a 10KW Single Phase IGBT

Development of a 10KW Single Phase IGBT

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2
nd
Canadian Solar Buildings ConferenceCalgary, June 10 – 14, 2007
1
DEVELOPMENT OF A 10KW SINGLE-PHASE IGBT INVERTERFOR GRID-CONNECTED PV APPLICATIONS
Corresponding Author: Liuchen ChangDept. of Elec. & Comp. Eng., University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, CanadaPhone: (506) 447-3145, Fax: (506) 453-3589, Email: LChang@unb.caCo-Authors: Gene Guo, Riming ShaoDept. of Elec. & Comp. Eng., University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, Canada
Type of Paper: Refereed
ABSTRACT
 Distributed Generation is an important area of thephotovoltaic applications, and the inverter connectedbetween soloar panels and grid is the key component.In this paper, state-of-the-art inverter techniques,including advanced predictive current controlalgorithm, fuzzy logic based MPPT method,accelerated phase shift anti-islanding algorithm, as wellas communicaiton and remote control of the inverterwere presented and employed in the developed single-phase IGBT PV inverter. Simulation results were alsopresented. The proposed inverter technologies havebeen verified through experiments on the developed10kW IGBT PV inverter.
INTRODUCTION
As one kind of environmental-friend and sustainableenergy, solar energy are attracting more and moreresearchers and industrialists. R&D on photovoltaic(PV) systems have been significantly advanced inrecent years, not only for the PV systems’environmental benefits, but also for their hugecommercial value. Inverters are the core part of thegrid-connected PV systems.As a highly integrated, highly reliable electronicapparatus, an inverter should include as much controland protection functions as possible. These functionsmay be:
 
DC-AC conversion with high output quality,which demands an innovative pulse-width-modulation strategy and proper design of outputfilters;
 
System control functions such as maximumpower point tracking;
 
Comprehensive protection functions, includinganti-islanding algorithms, to meeting therequirements for grid interconnection;
 
Communication and multi-system controlfunctions.With above considerations, a 10kW inverter has beendeveloped to the specifications:Input voltage: 150V-600V (rated voltage: 400V)Rated power: 10.0kWPeak power: 12.5kWGrid: Single-phase, 240V/60HzFigure 1 shows the developed 10kW single-phaseIGBT PV inverter. Figure 2 shows the schematicdiagram of the inverter. In the inverter, aTMS320LF2407 microprocessor is used as thecontroller, high voltage, high speed IGBTs are used asthe power switching devices. Assembly language isused to program the inverter control codes.The developed PV inverter features: advancedpredictive current controller for space vector pulse-width-modulation, fuzzy logic based maximum powerpoint tracking, comprehensive protection functionsincluding accelerated phase shift anti-islandingalgorithm, and communication/remote control functionsthrough internet. The analyses, computer simulation,and experiment results are to be presented in thefollowing sections.
IMPROVED PREDICTIVE CURRENTCONTROL ALGORITHM
For a grid-connected, voltage source PV inverter,feeding high quality current into the grid is one of themost important demands. The quality of the current isgaudged by current Total Harmonic Distortion (THD),while the current THD depends on the current controlalgorithm employed in the inverter.Generally, the inverter current controllers can beclassified as hysteresis current controllers (HCC), rampcomparison current controllers (RCCC) and predictivecurrent controllers (PCC). The HCC has the advantagesof simple and robust, but a inverter using HCC mayhave a relatively high current THD, and the switchingfrequency will also depend on the load. On anotherhand, the switching frequency of the RCCC can belimited to that of the triangular waveform, and thereforethe output current’s harmonics are confined at a fixedfrequency. However, there exists inherent phase andamplitude errors for the RCCC, even in steady states.
 
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Canadian Solar Buildings ConferenceCalgary, June 10 – 14, 2007
2
The PCC offers potential for achieving more precisecurrent control with minimum distortion and harmonicnoise, however, traditional predictive currentcontrollers demand computation efforts, are parametersdependent, and lack robustness.(a)
(b)
Figure 1. The developed IGBT PV inverter.
Figure 3 illustrates a model of a single-phase grid-connected inverter. In Figure 3,
 L
is inductance of thefilter reactor,
grid 
represents the grid voltage,
op
isthe output voltage of the inverter,
dc
is the DC-link voltage, i.e., the output voltage of the solar panels inthe PV system. From Figure 3, the govern equation canbe obtained:
grid Opload 
dt di L
=
(1)
Figure 3. Grid-connected inverter topology.
The control target of the inverter is that at instant n+1,the real current
]1[
+
n I 
load 
equals to the referencecurrent
]1[
ref 
+
n I 
. Therefore, in the switching period[n, n+1], the discrete form of (1), i.e., the demandedoutput voltage during the period of [n, n+1] can beexpressed as,
[ ]
periodloadref grid_avop_av
T][]1[ ][
n I n I   Lnn
++=
(2)where
period
T
is the switching period,
][
grid_av
n
is thegrid average voltage during period [n, n+1], it canexpressed as
[ ][ ] [ ]
21
gridgridgrid
nn n
++=
(3)and
[ ]
1
grid
+
n
can be obtained basing on theassumption that the change of grid voltage duringperiod [n, n+1] equals to that of period [n-1,n]:
[ ]
( )
]1[][][1
grid_avgrid_avgrid_avgrid
+=+
nnnn
(4)Therefore, the predicted demand average outputvoltage, which will be used as the reference of SpaceVector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM), can beexpressed as
periodloadref _gridgridop_av
T]1[]1[ ]1[]2[2]1[4][
++=
n I n I   Lnnnn
avop
 (5)In the traditional predictive current controller, thecontrolling points and the sampling points areillustrated in Figure 4. From the illustration, it can befound that at each controlling point, the sampled gridvoltage and current are the ones of previous samplingpoint, which is one switching period behind the presentcontrolling point, and this means that there will be atime delay of one period. To avoid this error, animproved predictive current controller (IPCC) wasdeveloped and applied on the developed PV inverter[Yu et al., 2005], [Kojabadi et al., 2006]. The timingschematic of IPCC is shown in Figure 5. In Figure 5, at
 
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Canadian Solar Buildings ConferenceCalgary, June 10 – 14, 2007
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the n
th
controlling point, the grid voltage and outputcurrent are sampled at n
th
sampling point, which is TD(Total Delay) behind the controlling point and is farshorter than one switching period. TD depends on thecomputation time of the IPCC.
Figure 4. Timing scheme of standard predictive current controller.Figure 5. Timing scheme of improved predictivecurrent controller.
START
System InitializationMain Loop ModuleInterrupt ServingModulesSystemprotectionMPPT algorithmInput & OutputControl
Improved predictivecurrent controlcomputaion
Signal Sampling
Communication andremote control
SVPWMRealizationZero-crossingDetectionADC ISRCapture ISRPWMUnderflow ISRAnti-islandingAlgorithmTimersSynchronizationStart/StopControlLCD DisplayContactor/FansControl
Figure 6. Block diagram of DSP code.
 The predicted average output voltage of the inverterover the switching period [n, n+1] can be obtained as
periodloadref gridgridop_av
T][]1[ ]1[5.0][5.1][
n I n I   Lnnn
++=
(6)With the predicted inverter output voltage, SVPWMtechnique can be employed to realize the currentmodulation. Figure 6 shows the block diagram of theinverter control code. It can be found from Figure 6that the current prediction and SVPWM are realized inthe interrupt service routine (ADC ISR module). Thecarrier frequency of SVPWM was design as 10kHz,while with appropriate control scheme [Shaoet al.,2006], the practical ripple frequency of output currentof the inverter can reach 20kHz, thus both the currentTHD and acoustic noise of the inverter can besignificantly reduced.Figure 7 and Figure 8 show respectively the simulationand experimental results of the 10kW PV inverter. Thetested inverter current THD can be less than 0.9% whenthe output of the inverter is 10kW.
Figure 7. Simulated load current and predictive output voltage.Figure 8. Measured load current and grid voltage.
FUZZY LOGIC BASED MAXIMUMPOWER POINT TRACKING STRATEGY
To shorten the payback of the PV system investment, itis desired to extract as much power as possible from thesolar energy. This make it necessary to employ aMaximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method in

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