Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Wall Control Blasting Techniques

Wall Control Blasting Techniques

Ratings: (0)|Views: 57 |Likes:
Published by partha das sharma
Wall failures are costly and often life threatening. The goal of efficient wall control blasting is to make transition from a well fragmented rock mass to an undamaged slope in as short a distance as possible. This can be quite challenging due to the many factors that influence wall damage. To develop efficient designs one must have a basic understanding of wall failure mechanisms as well as limitations of wall control procedures.
Wall failures are costly and often life threatening. The goal of efficient wall control blasting is to make transition from a well fragmented rock mass to an undamaged slope in as short a distance as possible. This can be quite challenging due to the many factors that influence wall damage. To develop efficient designs one must have a basic understanding of wall failure mechanisms as well as limitations of wall control procedures.

More info:

Published by: partha das sharma on Jan 01, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

08/21/2011

pdf

 
 Author: Partha Das Sharma, (B.Tech-Hons., Mining Engg.),E.mail: sharmapd1@gmail.com, Website: http://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/
Page 1
 
WALL CONTROL BLASTING TECHNIQUES
TO MINIMIZE DAMAGE TO THE ROCK AT THE LIMITS OF SURFACE ANDUNDERGROUND EXCAVATION, IN ORDER TO ENHANCE SAFETY STANDARD AND ECONOMY 
***Author: Partha Das Sharma, B.Tech(Hons.) in Mining Engineering,E.mail:sharmapd1@gmail.com
 
,Blog/Website:http://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/
 
 ABSTRACT 
Wall failures are costly and often life threatening. The goal of efficient wall control blasting is to maketransition from a well fragmented rock mass to an undamaged slope in as short a distance as possible. This canbe quite challenging due to the many factors that influence wall damage. To develop efficient designs one must have a basic understanding of wall failure mechanisms as well as limitations of wall control procedures. Inaddition, it is imperative, design be precisely implemented, evaluated and refined on a continuous basis. Therelease of energy during blasting produces reactive forces, which cause the deterioration of the remaining rock  face. Pre-splitting and trim blasting are the key techniques adopted to protect final rock faces. However, eventhese well known techniques are applied; slope failures and back damage may persist. The key parameterswithin the control of the blasting engineers are type and energy in the hole, drilling pattern, hole depth, holediameter, hole angle, bench geometry and blast timing. An understanding of mechanisms of all the aspects isneeded for good designing for blast for wall control and slope stability.
1. INTRODUCTION:
 Wall control blasting is the technique used to obtain a pit wall, free of backbreak and loose rock thatwill stand safely at the required wall angle for extended periods of time. Direct damage to theexcavation limit due to blasting is usually found in the form of backbreak or overbreak, crest fractureand loose rock on the face. The mine operator has a number of tools available for minimizing oreliminating these problems. Techniques include changing the explosive type, or changing theblasthole diameter, by decoupling the explosive, by decking, and by changing the burden andspacing. Changing the depth of subgrade drilling or the stemming height can reduce crest fractureand any resultant narrowing of the width of safety benches. Changing the millisecond delay timingand the rotation of the round may also be helpful in eliminating these problems.The rock characteristics and geology must be considered when designing controlled blasts as thesehave an important influence on the final results. The compressive strength, crushing strength andtensile strength of the rock should be known. The frequency and orientation of joints and fracturesin the rock are also important parameters. These variables cannot be controlled but must bedetermined by suitable field and laboratory techniques.
 
WALL CONTROL BLASTING TECHNIQUES-----------------------------------------------------
 Author: Partha Das Sharma, (B.Tech-Hons., Mining Engg.),E.mail: sharmapd1@gmail.com, Website: http://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/
Page 2
In other words, wall control blasting techniques have been used in surface and underground blastingin the mining, quarrying and construction industries for many years. The specific reasons for the useof controlled blasting techniques may vary according to the industry and project; however, twogenerally applicable reasons can be identified:a. To insure that the rock is broken to the excavation limit but not beyond to keep the host rockintact.b. To insure the subsequent safety of personnel and equipment, working under / side of the wall, byavoiding back-break and loose rock on the face.In open pit operations breakage beyond the pit limit is costly. Excessive back-break at the perimetergenerally results in an overall pit wall angle less than designed, and may result in the need for costlyartificial support techniques. In fact, failure to properly control blasting at the final pit wall can cost alarge open pit mine many millions of dollars expenses in additional waste removal for the same oremined.
There are four principal 
controlled blasting techniques
used, which are:• Pre-splitting• Cushion blasting• Buffer blasting• Line drillingPre-splitting is the most commonly used technique especially in surface work. This is followed by cushionblasting, also known as trim blasting in open pits. Smooth blasting, used underground, is similar tocushion blasting.Pre-splitting provides a preferential fracture plane behind the blast to terminate cracks growing fromblast holes, while trim blasting reduces rate of energy release against the final wall.Buffer blasting may be used alone in cases where the rock is quite competent, but this is not a commonapproach. However, a properly designed buffer row at the back of the final production shot is essential tothe success of most pre-splitting and cushion blasting applications.Line drilling involves the drilling of closely spaced small diameter holes at the perimeter of the excavation.These holes are not loaded with explosive, but form a discontinuity at the excavation limit. This method iscostly because of the many boreholes drilled and is therefore only seen in blasting for civil works projects,where back-break can be a very expensive result. Modified forms of line drilling may be used in miningand quarrying in special circumstances.Geology can have pronounced effects on the results of controlled blasting / wall control blasts. For example, it is known that trim blasting does not work well in the presence of relatively shallow dipping joint planes dipping into the excavation.
 
It may not always be possible to obtain the classic result 
 
whenadverse geology is encountered. However, if back-break, crest fracture and face loose rock have beenminimized, then the result will be far more acceptable than a wall in the same rock where no controlled blasting has been performed.
 
WALL CONTROL BLASTING TECHNIQUES-----------------------------------------------------
 Author: Partha Das Sharma, (B.Tech-Hons., Mining Engg.),E.mail: sharmapd1@gmail.com, Website: http://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/
Page 3
Underground, over-break in the stope results in costly ore dilution. Poor breakage control at theperimeter of drifts and shafts means more scaling of the walls and roof and more difficulty installingsupport and facilities.In construction blasting breakage beyond the designed limits may lead to the removal of many tonsof rock not specified in the contract. Added scaling and support may be needed for the long termstability of the wall. The consumption of concrete and other construction items may well increase.All of this is expensive.Equally important as cost, in every industry, is the need to provide a safe working environment. Pitand quarry walls that have sustained substantial back-break are prone to hazardous rock falls. Safetybenches, intended to arrest the fall of loose material will typically be narrow and ineffective. Driftsand stopes experiencing excessive over-break will be more prone to hazardous rock falls. Similarhazards will also exist in construction work as well. Therefore, any organization that emphasizessafety will want to control blasting at the limits of an excavation.Thus, wall control blasting techniques are the system of controlled blasting which refers to varioustechniques used to minimize damage to the rock at the limits of an excavation due to the action of the ground shock wave and the high pressure explosion gases, generated during the blast.
2. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF WALL CONTROL BLASTING TECHNIQUES:a. Controlling energy input given by explosive and the borehole pressures exerted -
A fundamentalgoal of all wall control blasting is to reduce the energy input and the borehole pressures at theperimeter of the excavation. The borehole pressures generated by commercial explosives, which arefully coupled to the hole, are much greater than the rock strength and will cause extensive damagearound the blasthole. Therefore, these pressures must be reduced.The borehole pressure for a
fully coupled hole
can often be obtained from the manufacturer of theproduct being considered for use.
CALCULATION OF BOREHOLE PRESSURE:Borehole pressure
can also be calculated using the following formula given. Generally, borehole pressure is function of VOD of explosives used.
(Pb)c = 2.5 x 10 
-6
 x 
 ρ  ρρ  ρ 
x V 
2
;where, ‘(Pb)c’ is borehole pressure in kilobar, when fully coupled explosive used,‘ 
 ρ 
’ is density of explosives and ‘V’ is Velocity of Detonation (VOD) of explosives in m/s.While the above equation may not yield exact results it has proven quite adequate for practical design requirements. However, the equation has some limitation in the case of aluminized explosives.The velocity of detonation is reduced because the initial reactions of the oxidizer with aluminium areendothermic. However, beyond the detonation zone the equilibrium shifts to the very rapid formationof exothermic reaction products. Therefore, the actual borehole pressure will be considerably higher than that calculated from the detonation velocity.Low density explosives produce low borehole pressures because the detonation velocity is reduced.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->