WALL CONTROL BLASTING TECHNIQUES-----------------------------------------------------
Author: Partha Das Sharma, (B.Tech-Hons., Mining Engg.),E.mail: email@example.com, Website: http://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/
Underground, over-break in the stope results in costly ore dilution. Poor breakage control at theperimeter of drifts and shafts means more scaling of the walls and roof and more difficulty installingsupport and facilities.In construction blasting breakage beyond the designed limits may lead to the removal of many tonsof rock not specified in the contract. Added scaling and support may be needed for the long termstability of the wall. The consumption of concrete and other construction items may well increase.All of this is expensive.Equally important as cost, in every industry, is the need to provide a safe working environment. Pitand quarry walls that have sustained substantial back-break are prone to hazardous rock falls. Safetybenches, intended to arrest the fall of loose material will typically be narrow and ineffective. Driftsand stopes experiencing excessive over-break will be more prone to hazardous rock falls. Similarhazards will also exist in construction work as well. Therefore, any organization that emphasizessafety will want to control blasting at the limits of an excavation.Thus, wall control blasting techniques are the system of controlled blasting which refers to varioustechniques used to minimize damage to the rock at the limits of an excavation due to the action of the ground shock wave and the high pressure explosion gases, generated during the blast.
2. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF WALL CONTROL BLASTING TECHNIQUES:a. Controlling energy input given by explosive and the borehole pressures exerted -
A fundamentalgoal of all wall control blasting is to reduce the energy input and the borehole pressures at theperimeter of the excavation. The borehole pressures generated by commercial explosives, which arefully coupled to the hole, are much greater than the rock strength and will cause extensive damagearound the blasthole. Therefore, these pressures must be reduced.The borehole pressure for a
fully coupled hole
can often be obtained from the manufacturer of theproduct being considered for use.
CALCULATION OF BOREHOLE PRESSURE:Borehole pressure
can also be calculated using the following formula given. Generally, borehole pressure is function of VOD of explosives used.
(Pb)c = 2.5 x 10
ρ ρρ ρ
;where, ‘(Pb)c’ is borehole pressure in kilobar, when fully coupled explosive used,‘
’ is density of explosives and ‘V’ is Velocity of Detonation (VOD) of explosives in m/s.While the above equation may not yield exact results it has proven quite adequate for practical design requirements. However, the equation has some limitation in the case of aluminized explosives.The velocity of detonation is reduced because the initial reactions of the oxidizer with aluminium areendothermic. However, beyond the detonation zone the equilibrium shifts to the very rapid formationof exothermic reaction products. Therefore, the actual borehole pressure will be considerably higher than that calculated from the detonation velocity.Low density explosives produce low borehole pressures because the detonation velocity is reduced.