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Table Of Contents

1.1 The physics of the early universe: an overview
1.1.1 The middle-age cosmology
1.1.2 Inflationary theories
1.1.3 Links between cosmology and particle physics
1.1.4 Basic questions and tentative answers
2.1 Aspects of general relativity
2.1.1 The equivalence principle
2.1.2 Applications of gravitational time dilation
2.2 The energy–momentum tensor
2.2.1 Relativistic fluid mechanics
2.3 The field equations
2.3.1 Newtonian limit
2.3.2 Pressure as a source of gravity
2.3.3 Energy density of the vacuum
2.4 The Friedmann models
2.4.1 Cosmological coordinates
2.4.2 The redshift
2.4.3 Dynamics of the expansion
2.4.4 Solutions to the Friedmann equation
2.4.5 Horizons
2.4.6 Observations in cosmology
2.4.7 The meaning of an expanding universe
2.5 Inflationary cosmology
2.5.1 Inflation field dynamics
2.5.2 Ending inflation
2.5.3 Relic fluctuations from inflation
2.5.4 Gravity waves and tilt
2.5.5 Evidence for vacuum energy at late times
2.5.6 Cosmic coincidence
2.6 Dynamics of structure formation
2.6.1 Linear perturbations
2.6.2 Dynamical effects of radiation
2.6.3 The peculiar velocity field
2.6.4 Transfer functions
2.6.5 The spherical model
2.7 Quantifying large-scale structure
2.7.1 Fourier analysis of density fluctuations
2.7.2 The CDM model
2.7.3 Karhunen–Lo`eve and all that
2.7.4 Projection on the sky
2.7.5 Nonlinear clustering: a problem for CDM?
2.7.6 Real-space and redshift-space clustering
2.7.7 The state of the art in LSS
2.7.8 Galaxy formation and biased clustering
2.8 Cosmic background fluctuations
2.8.1 The hot big bang and the microwave background
2.8.2 Mechanisms for primary fluctuations
2.8.3 The temperature power spectrum
2.8.4 Large-scale fluctuations and CMB power spectrum
2.8.5 Predictions of CMB anisotropies
2.8.6 Geometrical degeneracy
2.8.7 Small-scale data and outlook
References
3.1 Introduction
3.1.1 Spacetime
3.1.2 Field equations
3.1.3 Matter description
3.1.4 Cosmology
3.2 1+3 covariant description: variables
3.2.1 Average 4-velocity of matter
3.2.2 Kinematic quantities
3.2.3 Matter tensor
3.2.4 Electromagnetic field
3.2.5 Weyl tensor
3.3 1+3 Covariant description: equations
3.3.1 Energy–momentum conservation equations
3.3.2 Ricci identities
3.3.3 Bianchi identities
3.3.4 Implications
3.3.5 Shear-free dust
3.4 Tetrad description
3.4.1 General tetrad formalism
3.4.2 Tetrad formalism in cosmology
3.4.3 Complete set
3.5 Models and symmetries
3.5.1 Symmetries of cosmologies
3.5.2 Classification of cosmological symmetries
3.6 Friedmann–Lemaˆıtre models
3.6.1 Phase planes and evolutionary paths
3.6.2 Spatial topology
3.6.3 Growth of inhomogeneity
3.7 Bianchi universes (s =3)
3.7.1 Constructing Bianchi universes
3.7.2 Dynamical systems approach
3.7.3 Isotropization properties
3.8 Observations and horizons
3.8.1 Observational variables and relations: FL models
3.8.2 Particle horizons and visual horizons
3.8.3 Small universes
3.8.4 Observations in anisotropic and inhomogeneous models
3.8.5 Proof of almost-FL geometry
3.8.6 Importance of consistency checks
3.9 Explaining homogeneity and structure
3.9.1 Showing initial conditions are irrelevant
3.10 Conclusion
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Brief history of inflation
4.2.1 Chaotic inflation
4.3 Quantum fluctuations in the inflationary universe
4.4 Quantum fluctuations and density perturbations
4.5 From the big bang theory to the theory of eternal inflation
4.6 (P)reheating after inflation
4.7 Conclusions
5.1 Introduction
5.2 The SM of particle physics
5.2.1 The Higgs mechanism and vector boson masses
5.2.2 Fermion masses
5.2.3 Successes and difficulties of the SM
5.3 The dark matter problem: experimental evidence
5.4 Lepton number violation and neutrinos as HDM candidates
5.4.1 Experimental limits on neutrino masses
5.4.2 Neutrino masses in the SM and beyond
5.4.3 Thermal history of neutrinos
5.4.4 HDM and structure formation
5.5 Low-energy SUSY and DM
5.5.1 Neutralinos as the LSP in SUSY models
5.5.2 Neutralinos in the minimal supersymmetric SM
5.5.3 Thermal history of neutralinos and CDM
5.5.4 CDM models and structure formation
5.6 Warm dark matter
5.6.1 Thermal history of light gravitinos and WDM models
5.7 Dark energy, CDM and xCDM or QCDM
5.7.1 CDM models
5.7.2 Scalar field cosmology and quintessence
6.1 M/string theory and supergravity
6.2 Superconformal symmetry, supergravity and cosmology
6.3 Gravitino production after inflation
6.4 Super-Higgs effect in cosmology
6.5 MP→∞limit
7.1 A brief historical perspective
7.2 Physics of temperature fluctuations
7.2.1 Causes of temperature fluctuations
7.2.2 A formal description
7.2.3 Tight coupling
7.2.4 Free-streaming
7.2.5 Diffusion damping
7.2.6 The resulting power spectrum
7.3 Physics of polarization fluctuations
7.3.1 Stokes parameters
7.3.2 Thomson scattering and the quadrupolar source
7.3.3 Harmonic expansions and power spectra
7.4 Acoustic oscillations
7.4.1 An oscillator equation
7.4.2 Initial conditions
7.4.3 Coherent oscillations
7.4.4 The effect of baryons
7.5 Cosmological models and constraints
7.5.1 A space of models
7.5.2 Physical quantities
7.5.3 Power spectrum degeneracies
7.5.4 Idealized experiments
7.5.5 Current constraints and upcoming experiments
7.6 Model-independent cosmological constraints
7.6.1 Flatness
7.6.2 Coherent acoustic oscillations
7.6.3 Adiabatic primordial perturbations
7.6.4 Gaussian primordial perturbations
7.6.5 Tensor or vector perturbations
7.6.6 Reionization redshift
7.6.7 Magnetic fields
7.6.8 The topology of the universe
7.7 Finale: testing inflationary cosmology
8.1 CDM direct detection
8.1.1 Status of the DM problem
8.1.2 Neutralinos
8.1.3 The galactic halo
8.1.4 Strategies for WIMP direct detection
8.2 Phonon-mediated particle detection
8.2.1 Basic principles
8.2.2 The energy absorber
8.2.3 Phonon sensors
8.3 Innovative techniques based on phonon-mediated devices
8.3.1 Basic principles of double readout detectors
8.3.2 CDMS, EDELWEISS and CRESST experiments
8.3.3 Discussion of the CDMS results
8.4 Other innovative techniques
9.1 Introduction
9.2 The highly radiopure∼100 kg NaI(Tl) set-up
9.3 Investigation of the WIMP annual modulation signature
9.3.1 Results of the model-independent approach
9.3.3 Results of a model-dependent analysis
9.4 DAMA annual modulation result versus CDMS exclusion plot
9.5 Conclusion
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Three-neutrino mixing and oscillations
10.3 Analysis of the atmospheric data
10.4 Analysis of the solar data
10.4.1 Total rates and expectations
10.4.2 Two-flavour oscillations in vacuum
10.4.3 Two-flavour oscillations in matter
10.4.4 Three-flavour oscillations in matter
10.5 Conclusions
11.1 Synopsis
11.2 The cosmological framework
11.2.1 Friedmann cosmological background
11.2.2 Observables in cosmology
11.2.3 Applications
11.3 Galaxy surveys
11.3.1 Overview
11.3.2 Survey strategies and selection methods
11.3.3 Galaxy counts and evolution
11.3.4 Colour selection techniques
11.4.2 Cluster search methods
11.4.3 Determining m and
12.1 Introduction
12.2 The clustering of galaxies
12.3 Our distorted view of the galaxy distribution
12.4 Is the universe fractal?
12.4.1 Scaling laws
12.4.2 Observational evidences
12.4.3 Scaling in Fourier space
12.5.1 The REFLEX cluster survey
12.5.2 ‘Peaks and valleys’ in the power spectrum
12.6 Conclusions
13.1 Introduction
13.2 The standard approach of clustering correlation
13.3 Criticisms of the standard approach
13.4 Mass–length relation and conditional density
13.5 Homogeneous and fractal structure
13.6 ξ(r) for a fractal structure
13.7 Galaxy surveys
13.7.1 Angular samples
13.7.2 Redshift samples
13.8 (r) analysis
13.9 Interpretation of standard results
14.1 Introduction
14.1.1 Historical remarks
14.2 Lens equation
14.2.1 Point-like lenses
14.2.2 Thin lens approximation
14.2.3 Lens equation
14.2.4 Remarks on the lens equation
14.3.5 Extended source
14.3.6 Two point-mass lens
14.4 Galactic microlensing
14.4.1 Introduction
14.5 The lens equation in cosmology
14.5.1 Hubble constant from time delays
14.6 Galaxy clusters as lenses
14.6.1 Weak lensing
14.6.2 Comparison with results from x-ray observations
15.1 Synopsis
15.2 Methods
15.2.1 Introduction
15.2.3 Initial conditions
15.2.4 Codes
15.2.5 Effects of resolution
15.2.6 Halo identification
15.3 Spatial and velocity biases
15.3.1 Introduction
15.3.2 Oh, bias, bias
15.3.3 Spatial bias
15.4.1 Introduction
15.4.2 Dark matter halos: the NFW and the Moore et al profiles
15.4.3 Properties of dark matter halos
15.4.4 Halo profiles: convergence study
Index
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Modern Cosmology

Modern Cosmology

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Published by: fukunaga_smc on Jan 01, 2011
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