Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Mushroom Varieties Effects on Health

Mushroom Varieties Effects on Health

Ratings: (0)|Views: 257 |Likes:
Published by Tudor Vasile

More info:

Published by: Tudor Vasile on Jan 02, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/20/2013

pdf

text

original

 
1
Mushroom varieties – effects on health
Scientific Investigation from Mushrooms and Health2008Background 
Mushrooms and Health 2008
covered
 Agaricus bisporus
and 17 culinaryspecialty and nutraceutical specialty mushrooms; however someadditional culinary and nutraceutical mushrooms have also been includedwhere significant information was available on consumption and health.The scientific literature is categorised both by health condition andsubsequently, the information is also grouped by mushroom variety forreaders interested in specific mushroom varieties.
 Agaricus bisporus (common white button,brown/crimini, portabella)
It has been demonstrated that dietary supplementation with white buttonmushrooms (
 Agaricus bisporus
) enhancesnatural killer (NK) cell activity in C57BL/6 mice,suggesting that increased intake of white buttonmushrooms may promote innate immunityagainst tumours and viruses through theenhancement of NK activity (Wu et al. 2007).Extracts from
 Agaricus bisporus
mushroomshave been suggested as potential breast cancerchemopreventive agents, as they suppressaromatase activity and estrogen biosynthesis. A
 
2recent study has evaluated the activity of mushroom extracts in theestrogen receptor-positive/aromatase-positive MCF-7aro cell line
in vitro
 and
in vivo
. Mushroom extract decreased testosterone-induced cellproliferation in MCF-7aro cells but had no effect on MCF-10A, a non-tumourigenic cell line. Most potent mushroom chemicals are soluble inethyl acetate. The major active compounds found in the ethyl acetatefraction were unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, linolenic acid,and conjugated linoleic acid. The interaction of linoleic acid andconjugated linoleic acid with aromatase mutants expressed in Chinesehamster ovary cells showed that these fatty acids inhibited aromatasewith similar potency and that mutations at the active site regions affectits interaction with these two fatty acids. Whereas these results suggestthat these two compounds bind to the active site of aromatase, theinhibition kinetic analysis indicated that they are non-competitiveinhibitors with respect to androstenedione. As only conjugated linoleicacid was found to inhibit the testosterone-dependent proliferation of MCF-7aro cells, the physiologically relevant aromatase inhibitors inmushrooms are most likely conjugated linoleic acid and its derivatives.The
in vivo
action of mushroom chemicals was shown using nude miceinjected with MCF-7aro cells. The studies showed that the mushroomextract decreased both tumour cell proliferation and tumour weight withno effect on the rate of apoptosis (Chen et al. 2006).The edible mushroom lectin from
 Agaricus bisporus
has been reported tohave anti-proliferative effects on a range of cell types. A study has beenundertaken to determine whether it might have inhibitory activity onTenon's capsule fibroblasts in
in vitro
models of wound healing andtherefore have a use in the modification of scar formation after glaucomasurgery. Human ocular fibroblasts in monolayers and in three-dimensional collagen lattices were exposed to
 Agaricus bisporus
(0-100mg/ml).
 Agaricus bisporus
caused a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation and lattice contraction without significant toxicity. The datashowed that
 Agaricus bisporus
possesses key features required of anagent that might control scarring processes and suggest that
 Agaricusbisporus
may be especially useful where subtle modification of healingmay be needed, although further studies are required (Batterbury et al.2002).The effect on epithelial cells of a Gal beta-1,3-GalNAc-binding lectin, fromthe edible mushroom
 Agaricus bisporus
lectin (ABL) has been evaluated.ABL (25mg/ml) inhibited incorporation of [
3
H]-thymidine into DNA of HT29 colon cancer cells by 87%, Caco-2 colon cancer cells by 16%, MCF-7 breast cancer cells by 50%, and Rama-27 rat mammary fibroblasts by55% when these cells were grown for 24h in serum-free medium. When
 
3assessed by cell count, similar inhibition of proliferation of HT29 cells byABL was found. ABL (0.2mg/ml) caused no cytotoxicity to HT29, MCF-7,and Rama-27 cells as measured by trypan blue exclusion, and inhibitionof proliferation in HT29 cells caused by 50mg/ml ABL was reversible afterremoval of the lectin.
 A. bisporus
lectin appears to be a reversible non-cytotoxic inhibitor of epithelial cell proliferation which deserves furtherstudy as a potential anti-cancer agent (Yu et al. 1993).The reversibility of the anti-proliferative effect of 
 Agaricus bisporus
lectinis associated with its release from cancer cells after internalization. Theinternalization and subsequent slow release, with little degradation of thelectin, reflects the tendency of lectins to resist biodegradation and impliesthat other endogenous or exogenous lectins may be processed in thisway by intestinal epithelial cells (Yu et al. 2000).The three-dimensional structure of the lectin from
 Agaricus bisporus
hasbeen determined by x-ray diffraction. The protein is a tetramer with 222symmetry, and each monomer presents a novel fold with two beta sheetsconnected by a helix-loop-helix motif. The T-antigen disaccharide, Galbeta 1-3GalNAc, mediator of the anti-proliferative effects of the protein,binds at a shallow depression on the surface of the molecule. The lectinhas two distinct binding sites per monomer that recognize the differentconfiguration of a single epimeric hydroxyl (Carrizo et al. 2005).Aqueous extracts of the sporophores of eight mushroom species havebeen assessed for their ability to prevent H
2
O
2
-induced oxidative damageto cellular DNA using the single-cell gel electrophoresis ("Comet") assay.The highest genoprotective effects were obtained with cold (20ºC) andhot (100ºC) water extracts of 
 Agaricus bisporus
and
Ganoderma lucidum
 fruit bodies, respectively. These edible mushrooms therefore represent avaluable source of biologically active compounds with potential forprotecting cellular DNA from oxidative damage (Rocha et al. 2002). Aheat-labile protein has also been identified in fruit bodies of 
 Agaricusbisporus
which protects Raji cells (a human lymphoma cell line) againstH
2
O
2
-induced oxidative damage to cellular DNA (Shi et al. 2002).Lectins from
 Agaricus bisporus
and
 Agaricus campestris
have been shownto stimulate insulin and glucagon release from isolated rat islets in thepresence of 2 mM glucose. Maximal stimulation of insulin release wasreported at lectin concentrations above 58mg/mL (approximately 1mM).The lectin did not alter islet glucose oxidation to CO
2
or incorporation of [
3
H] leucine into trichloracetic acid-precipitable material, nor did it modifyrates of insulin secretion induced by 20 mM glucose. None of nine otherlectins tested stimulated insulin release, whereas stimulation of fat cellglucose oxidation was a general property of the lectins. The data also

Activity (3)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
MajiiTo Zárate liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->