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Introduction to UNIX and Linux Lecture One

Introduction to UNIX and Linux Lecture One

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Introduction to UNIX:Lecture One
 
1.1 Objectives
This lecture covers:The concept of an operating system.The internal architecture of an operating system.The evolution of the UNIX operating system into two broad schools (BSD andSYSV) and the development of Linux, a popular open source operating system.The architecture of the Linux operating system in more detail.How to log into (and out of) UNIX and change your password.The general format of UNIX commands.
1.2 What is an Operating System?
An operating system (OS) is a resource manager. It takes the form of a set of softwareroutines that allow users and application programs to access system resources (e.g.the CPU, memory, disks, modems, printers network cards etc.) in a
safe,efficient
and
abstract
way.For example, an OS ensures
safe
access to a printer by allowing only one applicationprogram to send data directly to the printer at any one time. An OS encourages
efficient
use of the CPU by suspending programs that are waiting for I/O operationsto complete to make way for programs that can use the CPU more productively. AnOS also provides convenient
abstractions
(such as files rather than disk locations)which isolate application programmers and users from the details of the underlyinghardware.
Introduction to UNIX and Linux: Lecture 1http://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~wjk/UnixIntro/Lecture1.html1 of 810/17/2009 2:10 PM
 
Fig. 1.1: General operating system architecture
Fig. 1.1 presents the architecture of a typical operating system and shows how an OSsucceeds in presenting users and application programs with a uniform interfacewithout regard to the details of the underlying hardware. We see that:The operating system
kernel
is in direct control of the underlying hardware.The kernel provides low-level device, memory and processor managementfunctions (e.g. dealing with interrupts from hardware devices, sharing theprocessor among multiple programs, allocating memory for programs etc.)Basic hardware-independent kernel services are exposed to higher-levelprograms through a library of 
system calls
(e.g. services to create a file, beginexecution of a program, or open a logical network connection to anothercomputer).
Application programs
(e.g. word processors, spreadsheets) and
system utilityprograms
(simple but useful application programs that come with the operatingsystem, e.g. programs which find text inside a group of files) make use of systemcalls. Applications and system utilities are launched using a
shell
(a textualcommand line interface) or a
graphical user interface
that provides direct userinteraction.Operating systems (and different flavours of the same operating system) can bedistinguished from one another by the system calls, system utilities and user interface
Introduction to UNIX and Linux: Lecture 1http://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~wjk/UnixIntro/Lecture1.html2 of 810/17/2009 2:10 PM
 
they provide, as well as by the resource scheduling policies implemented by thekernel.
1.3 A Brief History of UNIX
UNIX has been a popular OS for more than two decades because of its multi-user,multi-tasking environment, stability, portability and powerful networking capabilities.What follows here is a simplified history of how UNIX has developed (to get an ideafor how complicated things really are, see the web sitehttp://www.levenez.com /unix/ ).
Fig. 1.2: Simplified UNIX FamilyTree
In the late 1960s, researchers from General Electric, MIT and Bell Labs launched a joint project to develop an ambitious multi-user, multi-tasking OS for mainframecomputers known as MULTICS (Multiplexed Information and Computing System).
Introduction to UNIX and Linux: Lecture 1http://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~wjk/UnixIntro/Lecture1.html3 of 810/17/2009 2:10 PM

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