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UBICC, the Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal [ISSN 1992-8424], is an international scientific and educational organization dedicated to advancing the arts, sciences, and applications of information technology. With a world-wide membership, UBICC is a leading resource for computing professionals and students working in the various fields of Information Technology, and for interpreting the impact of information technology on society.

www.ubicc.org

www.ubicc.org

UBICC, the Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal [ISSN 1992-8424], is an international scientific and educational organization dedicated to advancing the arts, sciences, and applications of information technology. With a world-wide membership, UBICC is a leading resource for computing professionals and students working in the various fields of Information Technology, and for interpreting the impact of information technology on society.

www.ubicc.org

www.ubicc.org

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SPACE-TIME BLOCK CODES (STBC)FOR 4 TRANSMIT ANTENNAS.

Aresh Daruwalla

School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Australia(a.daruwalla@zmail.unsw.edu.au)

Allen Paul

School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Australia(allen@unsw.edu.au)

ABSTRACT

In modern wireless communications, numerous diversity techniques are used toimprove the performance of signal transmission over multiple channels. This paperfocuses primarily on the evaluation of Quasi Orthogonal & Orthogonal Space-TimeBlock Codes (STBC) for a 4x2 system model. The paper proceeds by checkingwhich of these two codes - Orthogonal STBC or Quasi-orthogonal STBC, is betterby evaluating relationship between the Symbol Error Rate (SER) and Signal toNoise Ratio (SNR). Furthermore we shall evaluate the performance of each withrespect to their diversity.

Keywords:

Space-time Block Codes (STBC), Symbol Error Rate (SER).

1

INTRODUCTION

Space-Time Block Codes (STBC) is anefficient technique of sending data over a wirelesschannel. A number of antennas are used at thetransmitter. In STBC multiple copies of the samedata are sent over a number of different antennasaccording to the given codewords. The medium of transmission being wireless, the signals sent maysuffer from scattering and also due to reflectionof the signal from different objects. Thesereflected copies do not manage to reach thereceiver antenna at the same time. Furthermore dueto channel noise some of these copies may getcorrupted during the way. The solution to thisis redundancy (ie. diversity). Multiple copies gotat the receiver end provide redundancy whichmay lead us to eliminate the effect of noiseproviding us with optimum solution at the receiver..To overcome the effects of fading and reflectionan important scheme used is diversity. Diversitytechniques may exploit the multipath propagation,resulting in a diversity gain [3]. Diversity is of two prominent types. One is transmitterdiversity and receiver diversity. Diversityincreases the probability of reliability of thesignal at the output. The scheme utilized in ourproject is Time and Space Diversity. In timediversity multiple versions of the same signal are sentover different time slots and Space diversityrefers to the copies being sent over differentantennae. Transmitter diversity is achieved by usingseveral antennas to transmit the signal. Antennaeat the transmitter should be placed far apart fromeach other so that the signals do not correlatewhen they are received by the receiver. To achievetransmitter diversity we need to code our data to besent over the channel using a coding scheme inwhich the codes are orthogonal to each other sothat the signals may not interfere with each.Transmitter diversity is difficult to achieve. In order to achieve receiver diversitysignals from two separate antennas are used

toreduce the impact of spatial variations in signalstrength thus increasing the average data rate whichis available.

2

SYSTEM MODEL

Our system model consists of four antennas atthe transmitter and two antennas at the receiverwhich is given in Fig [1].

Figure 1:

A 4 x 2 Communication System

Consider “M” symbols

- x

1

, x

2

…. x

M

to betransmitted over a channel with the overall channel

impulse response “H”. The noise in the channel isdenoted by “n”. The system of

equations is givenby (1) and (2): (1) (2) Where:

M = # of antennas at the Transmitter.

N = # of antennas at the Receiver.

h

N,M

= Path gain from transmit antenna N toreceiver antenna M. Our channel is a Gaussian channel withconstant Rayleigh fading. Hence, each noisesamples is independent with zero-mean. Noise isalso a Gaussian random variable. Hence, each output

“y” is also Gaussian.

The path gain is designed to besamples of independent complex GaussianRandom variables. The variables have their real andimaginary parts to have 0.5variance. In our following scenarios we shall denote theinput symbols

by “s”. y

1

, y

2

, y

3

, y

4

are therespective received signal vectors for the timeinstants t

1

, t

2

, t

3

, t

4

for the first antenna at the receiverwhile y

5

, y

6

, y

7

, y

8

are the respective receivedsignals at the second antenna at the receiver.

3

ASSUMPTIONS

In our project we have made 3 majorassumptions.

1.

We have assumed an independent andideally distributed (i.i.d) Rayleigh fadingchannel.

2.

The noise we are considering in ourtransmission channel is purely GaussianNoise.

3.

We shall implement Maximum Likelihood(ML) decoding which means that eachsymbol at the input is thought to have thesame probability of occurrences.

4

SCENARIOS

4.1

Scenario 1: For Orthogonal Space-TimeBlock Codes (STBC)

The first thing we need to make clear is whywe call our codes Orthogonal Space-time Block Codes and why not just Space-time Block Codes.

Consider a matrix “H”. Orthogonal STBC have the

property that the matrix H is orthogonal only if itstranspose is equal to its inverse as shown in (3) and(4). HH

T

=H

T

H=I (3) H

T

=H

-1

(4)

We need to prove a property of OrthogonalSTBC which states that Orthogonal Space-timeBlock codes always have BER less than one [5]. InScenario 1, we have considered the transmission of QPSK symbols over a 4x2 channel withindependent and ideally distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleighfading given by (4). Usually STBCs for real signal constellations areconstructed from generalized orthogonal designs.For lower rate designs, we however replace acolumn with zeros. These are in short also known asUnitary Designs.

(5)

In the above codeword, the main diagonal iskept zero i.e. the various symbols are sent fromthree different transmitter antennae while thefourth antenna sends nothing. Thus in four timeslots the system sends only three symbols. Thusunlike Alamouti STBC, this is not a full rate code.This is a rate 3/4 code.

4.2

Scenario 2:

For Quasi-orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes (STBC)

Once again consider the transmission of QPSKsymbols over a 4x2 channel with independent andideally distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading. InScenario 2, we have considered Quasi-orthogonalSpace-time Block Codes for four transmit antennasgiven in (6).

(6) The above codeword has a rank of 2. From theabove, we can see that different symbols are sentover different antennae and the conjugates of thesymbols are sent at the 2

nd

and the 3

rd

time slots.This codeword can achieve diversity of 4. The rateof the code is one.

5

DIVERSITY GAIN

The relation between the error rate and thediversity order is given by the relation below (7)

Where:

c = Constant that depends on the modulation andcoding.

γ

= Average received SNR [6]. The Diversity Gain is the M-fold increase inthe SNR performance due to the diversity order of the various schemes. Here, we observe that thediversity Gain for Scenario 1 is three. However, thediversity gain for Scenario 2 is four.

6

SYMBOL RATE

The Symbol Rate of any block code is given bythe formula: (8)

6.1

For Scenario 1:

In Scenario 1 for Orthogonal SBTC we aretransmitting three symbols in four time slots. Hencethe code rate for Orthogonal STBC is given by(10):Code Rate for Orthogonal STBC

=

¾

(9)

6.2

For Scenario 2:

In Scenario 2 for Quasi-Orthogonal SBTC weare transmitting four symbols in four time slots. TheCode Rate for Quasi-orthogonal STBC is given by(10).

Code Rate for Quasi−

Orthogonal STBC=4/4 (10)

7

PERFORMANCE

The performance of the block codes wasstudied and it is shown below.

Figure 2:

MATLAB simulation output between SERand Signal to Noise Ratio.

Hence, we infer that the performance of Orthogonal STBC is significantly better than quasi-orthogonal STBC. The Symbol error rate fororthogonal STBC drops to zero in under 5 dB SNRwhereas it takes 10 dB longer for Quasi-Orthogonal STBC to do so.

Table 1:

Performance comparison. Hence from the simulation and the graphs, we caninfer that:

1.

The average symbol error probabilitydecreases as the diversity order (i.e. the number of the receiver antenna) in the system increases. 2.

The performance of Orthogonal STBC isbetter than Quasi-Orthogonal STBC. But,

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