Consider “M” symbols
to betransmitted over a channel with the overall channel
impulse response “H”. The noise in the channel isdenoted by “n”. The system of
equations is givenby (1) and (2): (1) (2) Where:
M = # of antennas at the Transmitter.
N = # of antennas at the Receiver.
= Path gain from transmit antenna N toreceiver antenna M. Our channel is a Gaussian channel withconstant Rayleigh fading. Hence, each noisesamples is independent with zero-mean. Noise isalso a Gaussian random variable. Hence, each output
“y” is also Gaussian.
The path gain is designed to besamples of independent complex GaussianRandom variables. The variables have their real andimaginary parts to have 0.5variance. In our following scenarios we shall denote theinput symbols
by “s”. y
are therespective received signal vectors for the timeinstants t
for the first antenna at the receiverwhile y
are the respective receivedsignals at the second antenna at the receiver.
In our project we have made 3 majorassumptions.
We have assumed an independent andideally distributed (i.i.d) Rayleigh fadingchannel.
The noise we are considering in ourtransmission channel is purely GaussianNoise.
We shall implement Maximum Likelihood(ML) decoding which means that eachsymbol at the input is thought to have thesame probability of occurrences.
Scenario 1: For Orthogonal Space-TimeBlock Codes (STBC)
The first thing we need to make clear is whywe call our codes Orthogonal Space-time Block Codes and why not just Space-time Block Codes.
Consider a matrix “H”. Orthogonal STBC have the
property that the matrix H is orthogonal only if itstranspose is equal to its inverse as shown in (3) and(4). HH
H=I (3) H
We need to prove a property of OrthogonalSTBC which states that Orthogonal Space-timeBlock codes always have BER less than one . InScenario 1, we have considered the transmission of QPSK symbols over a 4x2 channel withindependent and ideally distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleighfading given by (4). Usually STBCs for real signal constellations areconstructed from generalized orthogonal designs.For lower rate designs, we however replace acolumn with zeros. These are in short also known asUnitary Designs.
In the above codeword, the main diagonal iskept zero i.e. the various symbols are sent fromthree different transmitter antennae while thefourth antenna sends nothing. Thus in four timeslots the system sends only three symbols. Thusunlike Alamouti STBC, this is not a full rate code.This is a rate 3/4 code.
For Quasi-orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes (STBC)
Once again consider the transmission of QPSKsymbols over a 4x2 channel with independent andideally distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading. InScenario 2, we have considered Quasi-orthogonalSpace-time Block Codes for four transmit antennasgiven in (6).