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Planktonic Cephalopod Larvae

Planktonic Cephalopod Larvae

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Published by draculavanhelsing
Planktonic cephalopod larvae from the eastern
Australian coast.
Planktonic cephalopod larvae from the eastern
Australian coast.

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: draculavanhelsing on Jan 03, 2011
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09/17/2012

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 AUSTRALIAN MUSEUMSCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS
Australian Museum science is freely accessible online athttp://publications.australianmuseum.net.au6 College Street, Sydney NSW 2010, Australia
nature culture
 
discover
 Allan, Joyce K., 1945. Planktonic cephalopod larvae from the eastern Australian coast.
Records of the Australian Museum
21(6): 317–350, plates xxiv–xxvii and map. [25 June 1945].doi:10.3853/j.0067-1975.21.1945.549ISSN 0067-1975Published by the Australian Museum, Sydney 
 
PLANKTONIC CEPHALOPOD LARVAE FROM
THE
EASTERN AUSTRALIAN COAST.
By
J
OYCE
ALLAN,
The
Australian
Museum, Sydney.
(Plates
xxiv-xxvii,
and
Map.)
Introduction.
The
larval
cephalopod
material
upon
which
this report
is based
was obtained
in
plankton
hauls
of
the
Research Ship
Warreen
alongthe
eastern
Australian
coast
in
1938-1941,
during
investigations
by
the
Fisheries
Division,
Council
for
'Scientific
andIndustrial
Research.
I
am
indebted to
Dr. H.
Thompson,
Chief,
Fisheries
Division,
for
the
opportunity
to
report
on
this interestingand unusual
material,
and
to Dr.
D:
L.
Serventy
and
Mr.
K.
Sheard
forhelp
in matters relating
to
stations, depths
and other
factorsassociated
with
the
collection. My
thanks
are
also
due
to
Miss
Betty
McKinnon,
LandsDepartment,
Sydney, for
preparation
of
the
map.
The
material
is extremely
importantin the study
of
this
molluscan class.
One
hundred and
thirty
specimens examined from
stations
over
an
area
extending from
Port
Arthur,
S.E.
Tasmania,
to
Heron Island,
Great
Barrier
Reef
in the
north,
repre-
sented
13
families,
19
genera,and
20
species, a
number
of
which
are
bizarreformsbelonging to families
hitherto
unrecorded from
the
South
Pacific.
The
minute
size,
delicate
nature, and
rarity
of
the
majority
of speCimens
permitted
only
the simplest
dissection
in
a
few
cases.
Practically
all
forms
appear
quite
larvai
and no signs
of
hectocotylization were
evident.
Character
and
Relationships.
A
surprisingfeature
of
the
collection is
the large number
of families
represented
by
only
a
single
specimen,
the
only species
occurring
in any
considerable
number being
Pyrgopsis
pacijicus'
(IsseI),
and
the larval
RhyncoteutMon
form
of
an
Omnastrephid,
Nototodarus
gouldi
(McCoy),young
of
which
are
removed
at
times
from
the
stomachs
of
Tuna taken
off
this
coast.
The almost
certain
association
of
this larva with the
adult
gouldi
has
proved
one of
the most interesting surprises in the
collection.
Thepredominance
of
Oegopsid
and
the scarcity
of
Myopsid cephalopods
are
very marked,only
three
species
of
the
latter
suborder being
present.Another
striking
feature
is
that,with
few exceptions,
the
new or little known
species
either
belong
to genera
previously known only
from
a
comparatively small
area in
another
part
of
the
world or to
generawith
a
wide range.
For
instance, the appearance
on
this
coast
of
the
extraordinary
little
species
Otenopteryx sicula
Appellof,
hitherto
known only from
the
Mediterranean
andNorthAtlantic
regions,
is most
surprising.
Similarly,
the
appearance
of
the genera
Tetronychoteuthis
Pfeffer
(Atlantic),
Mastigoteuthis
Verrill
(Atlanticand
Pacific),
and
Heteroteuthis
Gray (Mediterranean,
East
Indies,
Hawaii),
and the
occurrence
of
the
familyBoliiaenidae,representedby
only
a
single
specimen,so
far
south
of
its
known
Pacific
range,
gives
a
new aspect to
our
cephalopod
fauna.
On
the
other
hand,
the
appearance
of
Brachioteuthis
riisei
in
a local
collectionfor
the
first time,
further
extends
itsalready
wide
range,and
gives
support
to
Hoyle's
statement
(1912,
p.
338),
that
this
curious
little
pelagic
species willeventuallYprove
to have
an
almost universal
range.
In
contradiction
to
the
presence
of
these
unusual
forms,so
far
removed
from
their
accepted
range,some
rare
species
have
been found
D
 
318
RECORDS 0))'
THE
AUSTRALIAN
MUSEUM.
in
close
proximity
to
their
type
localities
in
the Australian
region, e.g.
Idiosepius
notoides
Berry,
Euprymna
tasmanica
Pfeffer,
Oalliteuthis
1niranda
Berry,
and
Amphi-
tretus
pelagicus
Hoyle. Only a few
of
the
species
in the
collection
had
been
previously
taken
by
the
Ohallenger,Endea,vour
and
Terra
Nova.
Far
too
little
is
yetknown
of
theAustralian
cephalopod
fauna,
and material
in.
thepresent
collection is too
scanty to
permit
generalizing with
any
degreeof
safety on
its
zoo-geographical
relationships
with
that
of
other
regions.
It
will
be seen,
however,
that
a definite
Mediterranean
affinity
exists
in the
case of one species
at
least,
and
a
number
of
species
haveAtlantic
and
North
Pacific
forms
astheirnearest
allies. A
leaningtowards
the
Japanese fauna,
and
possibly
a closer affinity
with
the
Hawaiian
planktoniCcephalopods,
is
noticed.
Regarding
relationships
in
the
home
waters,two examples
may
be quoted.
The presence
of
Amphitretus
pelagicus
off
S.E.
Tasmania
associates
that
region
with the
Kermadecs,
and
similarly
Pyrgopsis
pacificus,
from
stations
extending
from S.E.
Tasmaniato
Coffs
Harbour,
north
coast
of New
South
Wales,
indicates
a
correlation between
our eastern
coastal
waters
and
those
of
north
New
Zealand, whence
the
species
has already
been
recorded.
Classification.
The
only comprehensive
work
on
Australian
planktology
is
the
monograph
by
Dakin and
Colefax (1940),
an
excellent guide
for
the
identification
of planktoniC
organisms
of
Australian
coastal
waters
off New
South
Wales,
which
I
have
found
mosthelpful
for
general planktonic
conditions,
during the preparation
of
this
paper.
Nocephalopods
are
included
in
this
monograph; the
authors
indicated
that
although
molluscanlarvaeplay
an
important
part
in the
plankton,
especially
near the
coast
(p. 205),
they
found
that
the
occurrence
of
young
cephalopods
on
odd occasions
was
so
spasmodic
tliat
it
was
not
considered
worth
while to
include
them in the
work.
No
work
especially
devoted
toAustralian
planktonic
cephalopods
hasyet
appeared;
indeed,
published
work
on
Australian
Cephalopoda
generally
has
been
almost
negligible.A
considerable
search
through scattered
volumes,
in
which
many
descriptions
are
briefandmany
species
un
figured,
has
therefore
been necessary.
The
investigations
of
the
Ohallenger,
Endeavour,
Terra
Nova
and
others, though providing us
with
a fewspecies,
barely
touched
the
cephalopod
fauna
of
these
coastal
waters.
In
particular, the
works
of Chun,
Pfeffer, Hoyle,
Berry,Sasaki,
and
Thiele,
whose
general
lines
of classification I
have
followed,
havebeen
themain
source
of
investigation.WhereThiele
and
modern
authors
have
differed I
have endeavoured to point
this
out:
and
have
adopted
the
name which
I
think
applies more satisfactorily to
our
species.
Some
of
the
specimens named
tentatively may later
prove
to
be new species;
one
ortwoothersmay
be
better
placed
inan
allied genus,
but
on
a
single
or
perhapstwo
larval
specimens,
withoutother material
for
comparison,
it
seems
wiser to ally
them tothe
species
they
most
closely
resemble
than
to
propose
new
species for
perhaps geographical reasons
only. On
the other
hand,where
a species does
notconform to
others
in
characterswhich appear
specifically
constant,
aswith
two species, I
haveconsidered
them
new.
Since
theinternational situation
at
the
present time
preventsthe
elucidationof
many
pOints connected
with
a
paper
of
this
nature,
I
will
welcome
opinionsconcerning
the
classification of
the
rare
forms obtained
in
these hauls,
as the opportunity
occurs.
Undoubtedly
many
taxonomic problems
exist with
regardto
the planktonic
cephalopods,
some of
which have
been
encountered
in
working
over
the material, butthemain
object
here
is
to
place
on
record
the
existence
of
larval
forms
whose
generaor
even familieswere previously
unrepresentedin Australian
waters.
For this
reason each
species
has
been figured
as
a
quick
initial
guide
in
identification.
Distribution.
At
the
suggestion
of Mr.
K.
Sheard,
the
bathymetrical
distribution
is indicated
as
shallow
and
slope
(deep),
for
the
purpose
of
this
report. As will
be
seen
from
the
table
below, some
of
the
species occur
in
bothdistributions.

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