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Table Of Contents

2. A review of the history of laboratory distillation
3. Standardization and data on concentrations
3.1 Standardization of distillation apparatus
3.2 Definition of concepts
3.3 Symbols and units
3.4 Definitions and conversion of concentrations
4.1 Principles of simple and countercurrent distillation
4.2 Fluid and interface dynamics
4.4 Vapour pressure-temperature relationship, p - t
4.4.1 Measurement of saturated vapour pressures
4.4.2 Calculation and representation of saturated vapour pressures
4.5 Equation of state and px-diagrams
4.6.3 The experimental determination of equilibrium curves
4.7 Number of theoretical plates (separating stages) Determination of the plate number from difference in boiling point
4.8 Theory of packed columns
4.8.1 Process of separation in a packed column
Determination of the transfer unit, TU
4.8.3 intensity of countercurrent exchange: time required
4.1 0 Testing plate columns and packed columns
4.10.2 Effective separating length; the introduction of column packing
4.10.3 Test mixtures and the composition of the charge
4.10.7 Load and vapour velocity
Data for packed and plate columns
4.1 3 Distillate properties and distillation diagrams
4.1 4 Instructions for the calculation of distillation conditions
Batch distillation at atmospheric pressure
5.1 The scale of operation
5.1 .I Micro- and semi-micro-distillation
5.1.2 Analytical distillation
5.1.3 Preparative and production distillation The preparation of distilled water
5.1.4 The separation of isotopes Isotope separation by low-temperature countercurrent distillation The preparation of various isotopes
5.2 Methods of operation
5.2.1 Batch and semi-continuous distillation
5.2.2 Continuous distillation
Apparatus for continuous column distillation Examples of application from laboratory practice Starting up continuous distillations
5.2.3 Separation by partial condensation
5.3.2 High-temperature and isothermal distillation
5.4.2 Continuous equilibrium vaporisation (flash distillation)
5.4.3 Thin-film distillation
5.4.4 Molecular distillation
5.4.5 Pressure distillation
6.1 Carrier vapour distillation
6.2 Azeotropic an'd extractive distillation
6.3 Solution distillation and special methods
7.2 Standard apparatus and unit parts
7.3.4 Columns with stationary elements
7.3.5 Columns with rotating elements
7.4 Condensers and dephlegmators
7.5 Adapters; still and column heads
7.6 Still pots, receivers and fraction collectors
7.6.2 Receivers and fraction collectors
7.7 Insulation and heating devices
The heating of still pots and flasks
7.7.2 The heating of feed-stock and bottom
7.8.1 Shape of packing units
8.1 Automatic equipment
8.1 .I Fully automatic equipment for standardized boiling point analysis
8.2 Temperature measurement and control
8.2.1 Temperature measurement
8.3 Pressure measurement and control
8.3.1 Pressure measurement and control above 760 mm and from 760 to 1 mm Hg
8.5 Measurement of physical data during distillation
8.5.3 Dielectric constant
8.6 Measurement and metering of gases and liquids
9.2 Frameworks and services
9.4 Sealing ground joints
9.5 Starting up distillation apparatus
9.6 Safety measures
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Handbook of Laboratory Distillation With an Introduction to Pilot Plant Distillation

Handbook of Laboratory Distillation With an Introduction to Pilot Plant Distillation

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Published by erolay98

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Published by: erolay98 on Jan 03, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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