Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
1 2 Vacuum Pumps

1 2 Vacuum Pumps

Ratings: (0)|Views: 84|Likes:
Published by gyirga

More info:

Published by: gyirga on Jan 04, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

12/08/2012

pdf

text

original

 
2. VACUUM PUMPS
In reality a hole leading to an ideal vacuum does not exist. Real vacuum pumps arrive to some ultimatelimit pressure where their pumping speed goes to zero. Let us consider in the place of an ideal vacuuma hole connecting to a volume with the pressure p`. The number of gas particles colliding with the hole per unit time (f'A):
( )
1A50
2c11f=p-p'AcmT
(1)The above formula contains a forward stream and a backward gas stream. Writing (1) in a differentway we get:
1A50
2c p'1pf=A1- pcmT
   
(2)The factor 
 p'A1- p
   
characterizes the pump efficiency.
when p>>p` (at high pressures) the pumping speed S=A
when p=p` (close to the limiting pressure) S=0, i.e., p`=p
For an optimally designed pump one requires the maximum A and the minimum p`.Vacuum pumps are characterized by the pumping speed S, [m
3
/h] or [l/s], (1 m
3
/h = 0.28 l/s) and by theultimate pressure p
. Observe that S=S(p) – pump characteristics. S~A, p
. depends on the total back-stream and the materials used to build and lubricate the pump.
 Insert example of pump S(p) characteristics mech.-Roots-diff.
Zoology of vacuum pumps
1.
Volume pumps - based on the concept of reducing the pressure by increasing the volume.
2.
Pumps based on speeding gas particle into the exit by means of:
stream of liquid (aspirator pump)
stream of vapor (diffusion pump)
moving surfaces (turbo-molecular pump)
electric field (ion pump)
3.
Pumps based on gas sorption
zeolit sorption pump
cryogenic-pump
Ti-sublimation pump
4.
Mixed action.
 
 
2.1. Volume pumps
Old designs were in the form of a piston pump.Modern design – a rotary pump. In a single cycleof the pump operation the number of particles inthe pumped volume will be reduced by:
cc0
VV-V
,where V
c
is the volume of the pump cylinder, V
o
is the pumped volume. All volume pumps have adead volume V
s
which determines the ultimate pressure: The amount of gas in the dead volumeQ
s
=pV
s
=760 V
s
sc
V p [Tr] =760V
The pumping volume is lubricated with vacuumoil, which means that in reality:
sc
V p=760+p(oil v.p.)V
 To improve p
one should increase the pumpingvolume and decrease the dead volume.The best way is to reduces the back  pressure well below 760 Tr e.g., bymultistage pumping.Multistage pumping.=: An example – the three stage pump:
2.1.1. Rotary oil pumps (Rotary vane pumps)
The most commonly used pumps for all basic vacuum applications from atmospheric pressure down to10-3Torr. They are used as backing pumps for other high-vacuum gas transfer pumps such as turbo-molecular anddiffusion pumps.Principle of operation:Gas enters the inlet port and is trapped between the rotor vanesand the pump body. The eccentrically mounted rotocompresses the gas and sweeps it toward the discharge port.When gas pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure, the exhaustvalve opens and gas is expelled. Oil is used as lubricant andsealant.
 
The geometrical speed of pumping S
g
=V N, where V is the volume between the rotor and the stator and N is the speed of rotation. The geometrical speed is limited by the conductivity of the pump inlet andinside channels.
11
 g G P 
SG
=+
The main contribution to
1 G
P
is the size of holes leading to the cylinder (limited by the slidewidth). p
 
is determined by the design, quality of machining and oil vapour pressure.Typically:
one stage 10
-1
- 10
-3
 
[
Tr 
]
two stage down to 10
-5
[
Tr 
]
Cooling -forced air or water.Venting - necessary in the old types to prevent the back flow of oil.
choosing the proper size and type of a pump.
hermetical pumps
stability to chemicals.
Gas ballast valve (gas ballast prevents vapours from condensing in the pump by letting infrees air during compression).
Exhaust purifier - recycling the pumped gases. e.g. He in cryogenics systems
Vibrations - standard solutions: bellows, shock absorbers (avoid squeezing – T-bellow design) – 

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->