2. VACUUM PUMPS
In reality a hole leading to an ideal vacuum does not exist. Real vacuum pumps arrive to some ultimatelimit pressure where their pumping speed goes to zero. Let us consider in the place of an ideal vacuuma hole connecting to a volume with the pressure p`. The number of gas particles colliding with the hole per unit time (f'A):
(1)The above formula contains a forward stream and a backward gas stream. Writing (1) in a differentway we get:
2c p'1pf=A1- pcmT
characterizes the pump efficiency.
when p>>p` (at high pressures) the pumping speed S=A
when p=p` (close to the limiting pressure) S=0, i.e., p`=p
For an optimally designed pump one requires the maximum A and the minimum p`.Vacuum pumps are characterized by the pumping speed S, [m
/h] or [l/s], (1 m
/h = 0.28 l/s) and by theultimate pressure p
. Observe that S=S(p) – pump characteristics. S~A, p
. depends on the total back-stream and the materials used to build and lubricate the pump.
Insert example of pump S(p) characteristics mech.-Roots-diff.
Zoology of vacuum pumps
Volume pumps - based on the concept of reducing the pressure by increasing the volume.
Pumps based on speeding gas particle into the exit by means of:
stream of liquid (aspirator pump)
stream of vapor (diffusion pump)
moving surfaces (turbo-molecular pump)
electric field (ion pump)
Pumps based on gas sorption
zeolit sorption pump