("TDMA"), iDEN and IS-9
("CDMA") began to be introduced. In 1991 the first GSMnetwork (Radiolinja) opened in Finland. 2G phone systems were characterized by digitalcircuit switched transmission and the introduction of advanced and fast phone-tonetworksignaling.
The first pre-commercial trial network with 3G was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japanin the Tokyo region in May 2001. NTT DoCoMo launched the first commercial 3Gnetwork on October 1, 2001, using the WCDMA technology By the end of 2007 therewere 29
Million subscribers on 3G networks worldwide, which reflected 9% of the totalworldwide subscriber base.
Seven elements of service marketing mix
These seven elements are often referred to as the marketing mix, which a marketer canuse to craft a marketing plan. The seven P¶s model is most useful when marketing lowvalue consumer products. Industrial products, services, high value consumer productsrequire adjustments to this model. Services marketing must account for the uniquenature of services. Industrial or B2B marketing must account for the long termcontractual agreements that are typical in supply chain transactionsThe service marketing mix comprises off the 7¶p¶s. These include:
The product aspects of marketing deal with the specifications of the actual goods or services, and how it relates to the end-user's needs and wants. The scope of a productgenerally includes supporting elements such as warranties, guarantees, and support.
This refers to the process of setting a price for a product, including discounts. The priceneed not be monetary - it can simply be what is exchanged for the product or services,e.g. time, energy, psychology or attention.
This includes advertising, sales promotion, publicity, and personal selling, branding andrefers to the various methods of promoting the product, brand, or company.
Refers to how the product gets to the customer; for example, point of sale placement or retailing. This fourth P has also sometimes been called
, referring to the channelby which a product or services is sold (e.g. online vs. retail), which geographic region or industry, to which segment (young adults, families, business people), etc.
An essential ingredient to any service provision is the use of appropriate staff and