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44585804 Textile Terms

44585804 Textile Terms

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Published by Muhammad Abubakar

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Published by: Muhammad Abubakar on Jan 05, 2011
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11/11/2011

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Terms & Definitions
 
Textile people really do speak their own language. And besides the terms used in spinning, wealso need to understand the terms fiber producers use. And then the dyers and weavers definitelyhave their own language.If you think of terms that should be added (or definitions changed), please send me a notethroughRosemary Brock.A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 
A
Abaca
 A hemplike fiber used for cordage grown in the Philippine Islands.
Abrasion
 The wearing away of fiber by rubbing away.
Absorbency
 The ability of a fiber or fabric to absorb moisture.
Acetate
 A manufactured fiber that uses cellulose refined from cotton and/or wood pulp.Characteristics: fast drying, wrinkle- and shrinkage-resistant, crisp or softdepending on end use, luxurious in appearance.
Acid Dye
 A dye which is applied to protein fabric or fiber from an acid dye solutions. It canbe used on nylon, wool and other animal protein fibers, silk, acrylic,polypropylene and blends. It is fairly colorfast to light and laundering.
Acrylic
 A manufactured fiber made from long-chain synthetic polymers. Characteristics:wrinkle resistance; low moisture absorbency and quick-drying; provides warmthyet lightweight, soft and resilient.
Adjective Dye
 A dye which requires the use of mordants. Seenatural dyes.
Akha Spindle
 A lightweight, supported spindle.
Aklae
 Norwegian low-warp tapestry technique. Wefts interlock between two warp ends.
Alpaca
 Specialty hair fiber from thealpaca, a member of the South American llamafamily. It is softer, finer, more lustrous and stronger than sheep's wool, but inrelatively short supply. Fibers are prized for their strength, durability and beauty.
 
Please seeMcColl's Darkroom in Cyberspacefor drawings showing a close-up offiber.
Alum
 Hydrated double-sulfate of alumina potassium. A commonly used mordant.
Amercian Pima Cotton
 A cross between Sea Island and Egyptian cotton. Grown in Arizona. Lengthaverages 13/8" to 15/8".
Ammonia
 An alkaline liquid used in natural dyeing.
Aniline Dyes
 A class of synthetic, organic dyes originally obtained from aniline (coal tars),andwere the first synthetic dyes. Today the term is used with reference to anysynthetic organic dyes and pigments, in contrast to animal or vegetable coloringmaterials, and synthetic inorganic pigments. Aniline dyes are classified accordingto their degree of brightness or their light fastness. Also called "coal tar dyes."
Animal Fibers
 Protein-based hair, fur, and cocoon materials taken from animals. Typical animalfibers include, wool, mohair, llama, alpaca, cashmere, camel and vicuna andcocoon material (silk).
Angora
 Downy soft, fluffy hair that is plucked or sheared from theangora rabbits. This isa slippery, flyaway fiber is usually blended with wool or other fibers to make iteasier to spin and to reduce the cost.
Angora Goat
 The goat that produces "mohair"
Anthrax
 A highly dangerous, infectious disease cased by
Bacillus anthracis 
. In humans, aform of this disease is commonly called "wool sorter's disease". It may becontracted, most likely through skin abrasion from handling fleeces from infectedanimals. More information about this disease may be found at the HealthScout'ssite.
Apparel Wool
 All wools that are manufactured into cloth for use as clothing.
Attenuation
 In spinning, the fibers are pulled out of a distaff or from a ball of roving into astrand of the desired diameter.
Axle
 This is the metal shaft through the center of wheel, supporting it. There is usuallya set screw that 'locks' it in place which (sadly) can be sheared off.
 
B
Baby Combing Wool
 Short, fine wool which is usually manufactured on the French system ofworsted manufacture. This term is synonymous with "French Combing Wool".
Backcross
 The mating of a crossbred animal to one of the parental breeds.
Bactrian Camel
 TheBactrian camelis the camel that camel hair comes from.
Bags
 In the United States, the commercial wool growers have their fleeces loaded intolarge cloth bags for shipping to the wool mills. In Australia and New Zealand, thefleeces are packed into "bales" -- which load better in the ship holds for exportabroad.
Balanced
 A plied yarn that doesn't twist back on itself. If you hold ~10 inches of yarn by theends, then slowly move your hands closer together until they are ~2 inches apart,a balanced yarn will drape itself into an elongated U. An over-spun yarn will plyback on itself.
Bales
 In countries where the fleece traditionally has been shipped, the fleeces arepacked into bales -- which load better in the ship holds for export abroad.Depending on the country, the bales weigh different amounts. Australian andNew Zealand bales weigh 150 kg (330 lb), whereas South American bales weightapproximately 1,000 lb (454 kg).Cotton also is shipped in 500-pound bales.
Basic Dyes
 A class of dyes, usually synthetic, that act as bases, and which are actuallyaniline dyes. Their color base is not water soluble but can be made so byconverting the base into a salt. The basic dyes, while possessing great tinctorialstrength and brightness, are not generally light-fast.
Basket Weave
 A variation of the plain weave in which two or more threads weave alike in bothwarp and weft, joined in the regular order of the plain weave. Named for thebasket-like pattern of the weave.
Bast Fibers
 Fiber obtained from the stems of certain types of plants. These include flax,hemp, jute, ramie, milkweek, and nettles.
Batik
 A traditional dyeing process in which portions of cloth are coated with wax andresist the dye.

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