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Published by: arun on Aug 09, 2008
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 Physical Standby Switchover
A switchover is a role reversal between the primary databaseand one of its standby databases. A switchover operationguarantees no data loss. This is typically done for plannedmaintenance of the primary system. During a switchover, theprimary database transitions to a standby role and thestandby database transitions to the primary role. Thetransition occurs without having to re-create eitherdatabase.By contrast, a failover is an irreversible transition of astandby database to the primary role. This is only done inthe event of a catastrophic failure of the primary database.Before starting a switchover operation:1.Verify that both the primary and standby init.ora supportrole transition. Oracle recommends that you maintain asingle init.ora for both the primary and the standby.Each init.ora should have all the parameters that areneeded to support either the standby or primary role.An example of the primary init.ora follows:### Primary database primary role parameterr ###LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1='LOCATION=/database/oracle/920DG/primary/arch' LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_2='SERVICE=920DG_hasunclu2'LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_STATE_1=ENABLELOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_STATE_2=ENABLELOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT=%d_%t_%s.arc### Primary database standby role parameters ###FAL_SERVER=920DG_hasunclu2FAL_CLIENT=920DG_hasunclu1DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT=('/standby','/primary')LOG_FILE_NAME_CONVERT=('/standby','/primary')STANDBY_ARCHIVE_DEST=/database/oracle/920DG/archSTANDBY_FILE_MANAGEMENT=AUTOAn example of a standby init.ora follows:### Standby database standby role parameters ###FAL_SERVER=920DG_hasunclu1
FAL_CLIENT=920DG_hasunclu2DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT=("/primary","/standby")LOG_FILE_NAME_CONVERT=("/primary","/standby")STANDBY_ARCHIVE_DEST=/database/oracle/920DG/standby/archLOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1='LOCATION=/database/oracle/920DG/standby/arch' LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_STATE_1=ENABLELOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT=%d_%t_%s.arcSTANDBY_FILE_MANAGEMENT=AUTO### Standby database primary role parameters ###LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_2='SERVICE=920DG_hasunclu1'LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_STATE_2=DEFERWith the initialization parameters on both the primaryand standby databases set as described above, the onlyparameter that needs to change after a role transitionis the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_STATE_2 parameter. Change thisparameter to ENABLED on the database that assumes theprimary role.2.Verify that there is network connectivity between theprimary and standby locations.3.Each location in the Data Guard configuration should haveconnectivity through Oracle Net to the primary databaseand to all associated standby databases.4.Verify that there are no active users connected to thedatabases.5.Verify that all but one primary instance and one standbyinstance in a Real Application Clusters configuration areshut down.6.For a Real Application Clusters database, only one primaryinstance and one standby instance can perform theswitchover operation. Shut down all other instances beforethe switchover operation.
For switchover operations involving a
physical standbydatabase
, the primary database instance is open and the
standby database instance is mounted.8. The standby database that you plan to transition to theprimary role must be mounted before you begin theswitchover operation. Ideally, the physical standbydatabase will also be actively recovering archived redologs when the database roles are switched. If the physicalstandby database is open for read-only access, theswitchover operation still will take place, but willrequire additional time.9.For switchover operations involving a l
ogical standbydatabase
, both the primary and standby database instancesare open.10.Place the standby database that will become the newprimary database in ARCHIVELOG mode.11.Remove any redo data application delay in effect on thestandby database.
Steps to perform switchover with Physical Standbydatabases
Verify that it is possible to perform a switchoveroperation. On the primary query the switchover_statuscolumn of v$database to verify that switchover tostandby is possible.
> select switchover_status from v$database;
 SWITCHOVER_STATUS TO STANDBYIn order to perform a switchover all sessions to thedatabase need to be disconnected. In version 901 this wasa manual process. In version 9.2.0 this process has beenautomated with the with session shutdown clause that hasbeen added to the alter database commit to switchovercommand. If SWITCHOVER_STATUS returns SESSIONS ACTIVEthen you should either disconnect all sessions manuallyor when performing step 2 you should append the withsession shutdown clause.For example:

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