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Wireless Communication Notes

Wireless Communication Notes

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Published by Farrukh Ali

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Published by: Farrukh Ali on Jan 06, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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By:LecturerKashif Laeeq Wasti
This is a complete document of subject Wireless Communication taught by Lecturer Kashif Laeeq to BS-8, Batch-5 of Department of Computer Science & I.T of Federal UrduUniversity of Arts, Science & Technology’ Karachi during the session from September-December 2010.
Prepared by: Farrukh Ali
Wireless Communication
Wireless Comes of Age
Guglielmo Marconi invented the wireless telegraph in 1896.
In 1901, he sent telegraphic signals across the Atlantic Ocean adistance of about 3200 km.
Allowed two parties to communicate by sending each other alphanumeric charactersencoded in an analog signal.
Communications satellites were first launched in the 1960s.
Those first satellites could only handle 240 voice circuits.
Today, satellites carry about one-third of the voice traffic and all of the television signals between countries.
Higher data rates obtainable with broadband wireless technology.
Broadband wireless service shares the same advantages of all wireless services:convenience and reduced cost.
Operators can deploy the service faster than a fixed service and without the cost of acable plant. The service is also mobile and can be deployed almost anywhere.
Limitations & Difficulties of Wireless Technology
Wireless is convenient and often less expensive to deploy than fixed services.
There are limitations, political and technical difficulties that may ultimately preventwireless technologies from reaching their full potential.
Incompatible standards and device limitations.
Device limitations also restrict the free flow of data. The small display on a mobiletelephone can only displaying more than a few lines of text.
Most mobile wireless devices cannot access the vast majority of WWW sites on theInternet. The browsers use a special language, wireless markup language (WML), insteadof HTML.
Lecturer Kashif Laeeq WastiPrepared by: Farrukh Al
Wireless Communication
Chapter#2Transmission Fundamentals
Electromagnetic Signals
An electromagnetic signal is a function of time or frequency.
 The signal consists of components of different frequencies.
Time Domain Concepts
analog signal
is one in which the signal intensity varies in a smooth fashion over timeor there are no breaks or discontinuities in the signal.
digital signal
is one in which the signal intensity maintains a constant level for some period of time and then changes to another constant level.
periodic signal,
in which the same signal pattern repeats over time.
-∞ <
< +∞
Where T 
is the period of the signal.
Aperiodic signal
is an analog or a digital signal pattern that doesn't repeat over time
peak amplitude (A)
is the maximum value or strength of the signal over time,typically, measured in volts.
frequency (f)
is the rate [in cycles per second, or Hertz (Hz)] at which the signalrepeats.
period (T)
of a signal is the amount of time it takes for one repetition.
T = 1/f 
Phase (
is a measure of the relative position in time within a single period of a signal.
of a signal is the distance occupied by a single cycle
the distance between two points of corresponding phase of two consecutive cycles.
Lecturer Kashif Laeeq WastiPrepared by: Farrukh Al

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