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Wireless Attendance Monitoring Using Iris Scanner

Wireless Attendance Monitoring Using Iris Scanner

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Published by Sriram Kuchibhotla

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Published by: Sriram Kuchibhotla on Jan 07, 2011
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Wireless attendance management system based on irisrecognition
Iris recognition verification is one of the most reliable personal identification methods in Biometrics.With the rapid development of iris recognition verification, a number of its applications have beenproposed until now including time attendance system etc. In this paper, a wireless iris recognitionattendance management system is designed and implemented using Daugman’s algorithm (Daugman,2003). This system based biometrics and wireless technique solves the problem of spurious attendanceand the trouble of laying the corresponding network. It can make the users’ attendances more easilyand effectively.Key words:
Iris recognition verification, personal identification, biometrics, attendance management, wireless.
While the move towards the digital era is beingaccelerated every hour, biometrics technologies havebegun to affect people’s daily life more and more.Biometrics technologies verify identity throughcharacteristics such as fingerprints, faces, irises, retinalpatterns, palm prints, voice, hand-written signatures, andso on. These techniques, which use physical data, arereceiving attention as a personal authentication methodthat is more convenient than conventional methods suchas a password or ID cards. Biometric personal authentic-cation uses data taken from measurements. Such data isunique to the individual and remains so throughout one’slife. This technology has been applied for controllingaccess to high-security facilities, but it is now beingwidespread developed in information systems such asnetwork, e-commerce, and retail applications. In thesetechnologies, iris recognition becomes the most matureand popular biometrics technology used in automaticpersonal identification.In the beginning, the idea of using iris patterns forpersonal identification was originally proposed in 1936 byophthalmologist Frank Burch. By the 1980's the idea hadappeared in James Bond films, but it still remainedscience fiction and conjecture. In 1987 two otherophthalmologists, Aran Safir and Leonard Flom, patentedthis idea, and in 1989 they asked John Daugman to try tocreate actual algorithms for iris recognition. But now, thistechnology is also being used in several other applica-tions such as access control for high security installa-tions, credit card usage verification, and employeeidentification (Medien and Burghardt, 2002). The reasonfor the popularity of iris recognition verifying is theuniqueness, stability, permanency and easily taking. Justfor this, a number of iris recognition verificationapproaches have been proposed until now (Zhang andJain, 2004; Daugman, 1994). This paper proposes adesign and implementation of a wireless iris recognitionattendance management system. This system is anapplication of the iris recognition verifying and RF wire-less techniques and it is mainly used for employeeidentification. Through practices, this system is proved tobe easy-to-use and effectively. And this paper isorganized as follows: In the first section, we introduce theattendance management system with different types.Section 2 describes the technological requirements for
 this system design. Section 3 outlines the functions ofthis system briefly and describes the hardware andsoftware design of this system. Section 4 introducessome key problems in the implement of this system andfinally Section 5 contains conclusions and future researchplan.
Attendance Management System is the easiest way tokeep track of attendance for community organizationssuch as school clubs, scouting units, church groups,athletics, or volunteer groups.
Attendance Management System covers the require-ments of the Personnel Department in terms of Man-power Analysis, day-to-day monitoring of the Attendance,Maintaining Statutory Registers, Monitoring of LeaveRecords, Calculation of Overtime and transfer of relevantinformation to the Payroll System. We can classify theattendance management system to four classes:1. Simple systems: card based. The use of theattendance card is not new. Widely popular for manyyears now, OTR cards or punch cards have been usedfor clocking in working hours. These are paper cards thatare inserted in a machine which will then record the exacttime when the employee has arrived. The paper cardshave eventually been replaced by sturdier cards that aresized just like the bank card or ID. In fact, some ID cardsissued by companies can also be used for time keepingand are inserted into digital time recorders. An issue withthe attendance card is that some workers will actually askco-workers to time in for them. Some have attempted toremedy this dilemma through the use of signature logsthat are attached next to the attendance recorder.2. Large-scale companies: Attendance fingerprint. If youwant something that is more precise and unlikely to betampered with by the naughty employee, the fingerprintbased attendance system is the choice for you. Thesesystems make use of fingerprint readers, or little glasspanels attached to the attendance machine. Theemployees will simply put their fingerprints on the readerwhich will then scan the print and identify the employee.The fingerprint readers will then automatically log in theemployee on an electronic database.3. There are other variants to the fingerprint reader, suchas the iris scanner. Like the fingerprint, no two peoplehave the same eyes. A scanner will scan the eyes andautomatically log the employee in. keep in mind,however, that these high technology systems are muchmore expensive than the usual card reader. You will alsoneed to create a fingerprint or iris database from all ofyour employees so that the scanners will be able to makecomparisons. The theoretical study and the experimentsshow that the Iris recognition mechanism is the mostaccurate and reliable recognition system, for this reasonour article is based on iris recognition (Harper, 2003).4. E-Commerce: performance based systems. Finally,there is performance based attendance keeping systems.These are increasingly being utilized to ensure not onlyemployee attendance, but their productivity and efficiencyas well. an example are the computer companies andonline companies that will log in the employee based onfactors such as when the employee logs in to thecompany web site or computer, and other activities suchas mouse clicks, and keyboard taps. This is still in theexperimental phase, however, but is widely being studiedby many companies. One major limitation, however, isthat these attendance keeping systems will not work forcompanies and business that do not require theemployees to make high use of the computer.Today, biometric recognition is a common and reliableway to authenticate the identity of a living person basedon physiological or behavioral characteristics. Aphysiological characteristic is relatively stable physicalcharacterristics, such as fingerprint, iris pattern, facialfeature, hand silhouette, etc. This kind of measurement isbasically unchanging and unalterable without significantduress. A behavioral characteristic is more a reflection ofan individual’s psychological makeup as signature,speech pattern, or how one types at a keyboard. Thedegree of intra-personal variation in a physicalcharacteristic is smaller than a behavioral characteristic.For examples, a signature is influenced by both control-able actions and less psychological factors, and speechpattern is influenced by current emotional state, whereasfingerprint template is independent. Nevertheless allphysiology-based biometrics does not offer satisfactoryrecognition rates (false acceptance and/or false rejectrates, respectively referenced as FAR and FRR). Theautomated personal identity authentication systemsbased on iris recognition are reputed to be the mostreliable among all biometric methods: We consider thatthe probability of finding two people with identical irispattern is almost zero (Belganoui et al., 2000). That iswhy iris recognition technology is becoming an importantbiometric solution for people identification in accesscontrol as networked access to computer application(Gifford et al., 1999).Compared to fingerprint, iris is protected from theexternal environment behind the cornea and the eyelid.No subject to deleterious effects of aging, the small-scaleradial features of the iris remain stable and fixed fromabout one year of age throughout life. A number ofgroups have explored iris recognition algorithms andsome systems have already been implemented and putinto commercial practice by companies such as IridianTechnologies, Inc.,
whosesystem is based on the use
ofDaugman’s algorithm (Daugman, 1993).A typical iris recognition system generally consists of
Figure 1.
Anatomy of a frontal image of the eye (Wolf, 1976).
the following basic modules:I. Image acquisition, iris location, and pre-processing,II. Iris texture feature extraction and signature encoding,andIII. Iris signature matching for recognition or verification.‘P.S..: The iris is a muscle within the eye that regulatesthe size of the pupil, controlling the amount of light thatenters the eye. It is the colored portion of the eye withcoloring based on the amount of melatonin pigmentwithin the muscle’ (Figure 1)
REQUIREMENTS FOR SYSTEM DESIGNAuthentication using iris recognition
Canonical and scientific modern company managementsystem is the requirement for creating a cost-effective,rapid developing corporation. And attendance manage-ment is an important part of corporation managementsystem. It can be in contact with salary of employee, workefficiency of corporation and even affects business imageof company and staff morale. So the problem ofreasonably, effectively and scientifically managing of staffattendances has become all companies facing issue.Traditional styles of attendance management includehand-written signatures, card bell, magnetic card, IC cardand RF card attendance machines. These styles cannotavoid replace checking out just because people can beseparated from cards.The great advantage of the authentication using irisrecognition is the irreplaceable nature. Through theanalysis of the overall and local characteristics of irisrecognition such as eyelid, sclera, pupil, we can extractenough detail data. Such data is unique to the individualand remains so throughout one’s life (Medien andBurghardt, 2002). We can use these data to identify orverify a person operating as follows: (1) A digital image ofone person’s eyes to be verified is captured;(2) A featureextracting algorithm is carried out;(3) Minutiae areextracted and stored as a template for verifying later;(4)People to be verified place his eye on the iris recognitionsensor so as to extracting the minutiae from the capturedimage; (5) A matching algorithm is applied to matches theminutiae with the stored template previously (Miyazawaet al., 2006; Kumar et al., 2003). The overall block
diagram of the iris recognition verifying is shown in Figure 2.
Transmission using wireless technique
There are mainly two kinds of iris recognition attendancemanagement system on the market. One is on-line irisrecognition attendance management system and theother is off-line iris recognition attendance managementsystem. On-line system always needs to connect with aPC or workstation and all the iris recognition templates ofpeople to be verified must stored in the database in thePC or workstation. Thereby, matching iris recognitionneeds the support of the background PC. This kind ofattendance management system is easy to paralyses incase of malfunctions of iris recognition attendancemachines, transmission line or PC. Once several systemsconnect to form a network, burden of PC and theresponse time of the system will be added.On the contraries, an off-line iris recognition attendance

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