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NORML Clinical Applications for Cannabis and Cannabinoids

NORML Clinical Applications for Cannabis and Cannabinoids

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Published by arcompassion
As states continue to approve legislation enabling the physician-supervised use of medicinal marijuana, more patients with varying disease types are exploring the use of therapeutic cannabis. Many of these patients and their physicians are now discussing this issue for the first time, and are seeking guidance on whether the therapeutic use of cannabis may or may not be advisable. This report seeks to provide this guidance by summarizing the most recently published scientific research (2000-2010) on the therapeutic use of cannabis and cannabinoids for 19 clinical indications.
As states continue to approve legislation enabling the physician-supervised use of medicinal marijuana, more patients with varying disease types are exploring the use of therapeutic cannabis. Many of these patients and their physicians are now discussing this issue for the first time, and are seeking guidance on whether the therapeutic use of cannabis may or may not be advisable. This report seeks to provide this guidance by summarizing the most recently published scientific research (2000-2010) on the therapeutic use of cannabis and cannabinoids for 19 clinical indications.

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Published by: arcompassion on Jan 07, 2011
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10/28/2013

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Emerging Clinical Applicationsfor Cannabis and Cannabinoids:
 A Review of the Recent Scientific Literature, Fourth Edition
Paul ArmentanoDeputy DirectorNORML FoundationWashington, DC
 
Working to Reform Marijuana Laws
 
The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (www.norml.org)
 
- 1 – 1/7/2011
 
Table
 
of
 
Contents
 
TABLE
 
OF
 
CONTENTS
...................................................................................................................................................1
 
INTRODUCTION
.............................................................................................................................................................2
 
FOREWORD
.......................................................................................................................................................................6
 
INTRODUCTION
 
TO
 
THE
 
ENDOCANNABINOID
 
SYSTEM
.............................................................................10
 
ALZHEIMER
ʹ
S
 
DISEASE
..............................................................................................................................................15
 
AMYOTROPHIC
 
LATERAL
 
SCLEROSIS
 
(ALS)
......................................................................................................18
 
CHRONIC
 
PAIN
..............................................................................................................................................................20
 
DIABETES
 
MELLITUS
...................................................................................................................................................22
 
DYSTONIA
.......................................................................................................................................................................24
 
FIBROMYALGIA
............................................................................................................................................................26
 
GASTROINTESTINAL
 
DISORDERS
.........................................................................................................................28
 
GLIOMAS/CANCER
......................................................................................................................................................30
 
HEPATITIS
 
C
...................................................................................................................................................................35
 
HUMAN
 
IMMUNODEFICIENCY
 
VIRUS
 
(HIV)
.....................................................................................................37
 
HYPERTENSION
............................................................................................................................................................40
 
INCONTINENCE
............................................................................................................................................................42
 
METHICILLIN
RESISTANT
 
STAPHYLOCCUS
 
 AUREUS
 
(MRSA)
......................................................................44
 
MULTIPLE
 
SCLEROSIS
................................................................................................................................................45
 
OSTEOPOROSIS
.............................................................................................................................................................48
 
PRURITUS
........................................................................................................................................................................50
 
RHEUMATOID
 
ARTHRITIS
........................................................................................................................................52
 
SLEEP
 
APNEA
..................................................................................................................................................................54
 
TOURETTE
ʹ
S
 
SYNDROME
..........................................................................................................................................55
 
 
Working to Reform Marijuana Laws
 
The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (www.norml.org)
 
- 2 – 1/7/2011
 
Introduction
 
Despite
 
the
 
ongoing
 
political
 
debate
 
regarding
 
the
 
legality
 
of
 
medicinal
 
marijuana,
 
clinical
 
investigations
 
of
 
the
 
therapeutic
 
use
 
of
 
cannabinoids
 
are
 
now
 
more
 
prevalent
 
than
 
at
 
any
 
time
 
in
 
history.
 
For
 
example,
 
in
 
February
 
2010
 
investigators
 
at
 
the
 
University
 
of
 
California
 
Center
 
for
 
Medicinal
 
Cannabis
 
Research
 
publicly
 
announced
 
the
 
findings
 
of
 
a
 
series
 
of
 
randomized,
 
placebo
controlled
 
clinical
 
trials
 
on
 
the
 
medical
 
utility
 
of
 
inhaled
 
cannabis.
 
The
 
studies,
 
which
 
utilized
 
the
 
so
called
 
‘gold
 
standard
ʹ
FDA
 
clinical
 
trail
 
design,
 
concluded
 
that
 
marijuana
 
ought
 
to
 
 be
 
a
ʺ
first
 
line
 
treatment
ʺ
for
 
patients
 
with
 
neuropathy
 
and
 
other
 
serious
 
illnesses.
 
Among
 
the
 
studies
 
conducted
 
 by
 
the
 
Center,
 
four
 
assessed
 
smoked
 
marijuana
ʹ
s
 
ability
 
to
 
alleviate
 
neuropathic
 
pain,
 
a
 
notoriously
 
difficult
 
to
 
treat
 
type
 
of
 
nerve
pain
 
associated
 
with
 
cancer,
 
diabetes,
 
HIV/AIDS,
 
spinal
 
cord
 
injury,
 
and
 
many
 
other
 
debilitating
 
conditions.
 
Each
 
of
 
the
 
trials
 
found
 
that
 
cannabis
 
consistently
 
reduced
 
patients
ʹ
pain
 
levels
 
to
 
a
 
degree
 
that
 
was
 
as
 
good
 
or
 
 better
 
than
 
currently
 
available
 
medications.
 
Another
 
study
 
conducted
 
 by
 
the
 
Center
ʹ
s
 
investigators
 
assessed
 
the
 
use
 
of
 
marijuana
 
as
 
a
 
treatment
 
for
 
patients
 
suffering
 
from
 
multiple
 
sclerosis.
 
That
 
study
 
determined
 
that
ʺ
smoked
 
cannabis
 
was
 
superior
 
to
 
placebo
 
in
 
reducing
 
spasticity
 
and
 
pain
 
in
 
patients
 
with
 
MS,
 
and
 
provided
 
some
 
 benefit
 
 beyond
 
currently
 
prescribed
 
treatments.
ʺ
Around
 
the
 
globe
 
similarly
 
controlled
 
trials
 
are
 
also
 
taking
 
place.
 
A
 
2010
 
review
 
 by
 
researchers
 
in
 
Germany
 
reports
 
that
 
since
 
2005
 
there
 
have
 
 been
 
37
 
controlled
 
studies
 
assessing
 
the
 
safety
 
and
 
efficacy
 
of
 
marijuana
 
and
 
its
 
naturally
 
occurring
 
compounds,
 
involved
 
a
 
total
 
of
 
2,563
 
subjects.
 
By
 
contrast,
 
most
 
FDA
approved
 
drugs
 
go
 
through
 
far
 
fewer
 
trials
 
involving
 
far
 
fewer
 
subjects.
 
While
 
much
 
of
 
the
 
renewed
 
interest
 
in
 
cannabinoid
 
therapeutics
 
is
 
a
 
result
 
of
 
the
 
discovery
 
of
 
the
 
endocannabinoid
 
regulatory
 
system
 
(which
 
we
 
describe
 
in
 
detail
 
later
 
in
 
this
 
 booklet),
 
some
 
of
 
this
 
increased
 
attention
 
is
 
also
 
due
 
to
 
the
 
growing
 
 body
 
of
 
testimonials
 
from
 
medicinal
 
cannabis
 
patients
 
and
 
their
 
physicians.
 
Nevertheless,
 
despite
 
this
 
influx
 
of
 
anecdotal
 
reports,
 
much
 
of
 
the
 
modern
 
investigation
 
of
 
medicinal
 
cannabis
 
remains
 
limited
 
to
 
preclinical
 
(animal)
 
studies
 
of
 
individual
 
cannabinoids
 
(e.g.
 
THC
 
or
 
cannabidiol)
 
and/or
 
synthetic
 
cannabinoid
 
agonists
 
(e.g.,
 
dronabinol
 
or
 
WIN
 
55,212
2)
 
rather
 
than
 
clinical
 
trial
 
investigations
 
involving
 
whole
 
plant
 
material.
 
Predictably,
 
 because
 
of
 
the
 
US
 
government
ʹ
s
 
strong
 
public
 
policy
 
stance
 
against
 
any
 
use
 
of
 
cannabis,
 
the
 
 bulk
 
of
 
this
 
modern
 
cannabinoid
 
research
 
is
 
taking
 
place
 
outside
 
the
 
United
 
States.
 
As
 
clinical
 
research
 
into
 
the
 
therapeutic
 
value
 
of
 
cannabinoids
 
has
 
proliferated
 
 
there
 
are
 
now
 
an
 
estimated
 
20,000
 
published
 
papers
 
in
 
the
 
scientific
 
literature
 
analyzing
 
marijuana
 
and
 
its
 

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