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LEADERSHIP AND POLITICAL PROCESSES IN PERU

LEADERSHIP AND POLITICAL PROCESSES IN PERU

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Published by zeusperu
This paper presents an analysis about the paradigm the Leadership promoted by Shining Path. Explains the models, roles, and principal features of the emergent styles of leadership within terrorist groups. Besides, it makes an analysis of the reappearing of the subversive actions and the new strategies of fighting of Shining Path
This paper presents an analysis about the paradigm the Leadership promoted by Shining Path. Explains the models, roles, and principal features of the emergent styles of leadership within terrorist groups. Besides, it makes an analysis of the reappearing of the subversive actions and the new strategies of fighting of Shining Path

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Published by: zeusperu on Jan 07, 2011
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11/04/2012

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LEADERSHIP AND POLITICAL PROCESSES IN PERU
ByOrlando L. Paredes
 Academic paper developed for the Canadian Forces Leadership Institute
Lima, 2003
 Abstract:
This paper presents an analysis about the paradigm the Leadership promoted by Shining Path. Explains the models, roles, and principal features of the emergent  styles of leadership within terrorist groups. Besides, it makes an analysis of thereappearing of the subversive actions and the new strategies of fighting of Shining  Path.
 Key- Words
: Leadership, Terrorism
 
LEADERSHIP AND POLITICAL PROCESSES IN PERU
OVERVIEW
Two concepts are important in this research: Terrorism and Leadership. The analysisunit is the reappearance of terrorist activities of Shining Path in several cities of Peruand its influence on the social processes. Terrorism is defined as the organizationswhich possess an ideological basis and seek for the power through the use of violent or ilegitimate means; and leadership for us, is what makes the world move. It’s thetransaction we make with the history, where the capacity that certain fellows have isreaffirmed to stir, inspire and move people masses to make them act in unison in searchfor a determined goal.Since the unit analysis of the reappearance of Shining Path actions in several peruviancities, we outline the national context from the appearance of these violent groups at the beginning of 1980. Peru, after 10 years of militar dictatorship returned to a civilgovernment elected democratically, when suddenly the peruvian population entered toan inestable situation with the actions of these terrorist groups with a marxist-leninist-maoist and the Gonzalo thought whose unique objective –during the 22 years- is the power taking through violent actions. The period of this investigation covers the mostrecent terrorist activities, activities attributed to a third faction of Shining Path, named“Proseguir”, characterized by the manifestation of innovating leadership styles paralelto new ways of senderist action such as the increase of the infiltration in the national burocracy, as well as in the nongovernment organizations.On the other hand, the leadership study in the civil and militar aspect in Peru associatedagainst the terrorism, means to describe and explain a complicate interrelation of variables. Among them we study: the relation of leadership between the fellow and hisorganization, the interrelation of the population with these groups and with the military,the relation of the government with the population, and the relation between thegovernment and the military. With respect to those relations, we find that the civilleaders are relatively well integrated with respect to the democratic system incomparison with the military; we find that the leaders of the terrorist organizations arewell integrated to their ideological system, evidencing that both organizations are2
 
characterized and defined by their relation inside their hierarchical structure and their leadership style sustained in an ideological content.Besides, we find that the relative integration of the civils and the military inside thenational system, is because that its leadership structure in both sectors differs from its basis of the formation and democratic participation with some of its members do notagree with. On the other side, the terrorist organizations have their own system whichthey are using: the national system for their ideological achievements. Their leadershipis centred in an elite with peculiar characteristics, the one which is close to the entry of new leaders.The research on the leadership of Shining Path supposes the consideration of anillustrative case from the acting of its followers in each terrorist action to a local andinternational level. Actions which were executed evidencing a new organizationalstructure and a new leadership style. The acting also shows that the followers have alsoan ideological formation of the fight for the power, ideological formation which isdefined as an interrelation between the beliefs and the marxist-leninist-maoist ideologyand the Gonzalo thought. This is operationalized in the expression of key mottoesappeared in cities inside the country, as well as the outside – New York, The UnitedStates.Finally, the analysis of the models of decision of the organization of the senderists ischaracterized as the beginning of a new faction inside the levels of the terrorist action.In this case, a new structure is being created for the concentration of the effort of leadership elements in each level of leadership, where a decision is predominantlyindependent of the organic structure, while the others- civil and militar leadership- islargely dependent due to that it begins its activities in function to the activities of theinternal agents of its organization. The two studied cases provide the additionalinformation about the nature and the structure of the leadership in each group, as well asit confirms the importance of the relationship between the leadership, organization andideology as a means to influence on any political process.
Part I – General Aspects
 Human societies, their culture and civilizations, emerge from other societies andcultures; they develop and become more complex each time. In their historical process,3

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