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Published by: Central Department of Geology on Jan 08, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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 River Dynamics and Restoration Design of the Nakhu Khola
 Binod Maharjan
The fifth order Nakhu Khola, flowing from the south towards north direction drainssoutheastern part of the Kathmandu Valley and functions as major tributary of the BagmatiRiver. Like other rivers of the Kathmandu Valley, the Nakhu Khola is also threatened bychanges in watershed hydrology and land use, resulting in unstable streams with poor habitatand water quality. Impacts include eroding stream banks, unsafe water supply, impairedhabitat, fish kills, flooding, and loss of flood plain functions. Causes of stream impairmentinclude channelization, increased sediment loads and loss of riparian vegetation.In order to restore the degrading the Nakhu Khola into its natural condition, its presentconditions is identified and river is classified by following Rosen's designation of classifyingstream. Four representative segments: Nakhu Segment, Bhainsepati Segment, ChapagaunSegment, and Bhardew Segment from downstream to upstream of the Nakhu Khola werestudied in detail for their fluvial morphological parameters, substrate sediment and existingstream conditions. The overall segments are vertically and laterally unstable as the value of BHR and W/D ratio exceeds 1.5 and 1.4, respectively. Since the slope and velocity exceedscritical values, the Nakhu Khola is competent for transporting the channel sediments presentin the channel and bar even during normal flow. The Chapagaon Segment is most verticallyand laterally unstable with greatest bank height ratio and width depth ratio than othersegments The channel modification map shows no change in the primary river meanderingpattern but only in the secondary meandering pattern. Encroachment of channel, clearing of vegetation, increase in sediment load due to mines, landuse change and waste dumping and

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