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WID-WAD-GAD by Vibhuti Patel

WID-WAD-GAD by Vibhuti Patel

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Published by Vibhuti Patel
WID- Women in Development model explains the reasons for women being treated as beneficiaries of the crumbs thrown at them, in the margin of the economy, consumer and an auxiliary labour force to be utilised in the crisis period and eased out the moment men are ready for take over. The discourse revolved around the economic growth paradigm.
WAD- Women and Development model integrates women in the development work as active change agents. Affirmative action by the state and pro-active approach by the civil society through NGOs and women's groups are advocated by these models for empowerment of women against the forces of patriarchal class society. NGOs-voluntary organisations implementing this approach have become powerful force during 1990s.
GAD - Gender and Development model is based on an understanding of gender relations and empowers the weak (he or she). Gender is socially constructed and gender relations are power relations. Here power is an important analytical category. Explicit measures of gender inequalities are sex-ratio, literacy rates, health and nutrition indicators, wage differentials, ownership of land and property. "The implicit relations are those embedded in relations of power and in hierarchies and are more difficult to measure. Located in the household, in custom, religion, and culture, these intra-household inequalities result in unequal distribution of power, control over resources and decision-making, dependence rather than self-reliance and unfair, unequal distribution of work, drudgery and even food."(Asha Kapur Mehta) Super women who are able to look after the interests of each and every stake group are survivors in this model. In the Indian context, gender relations are determined by the complex interplay of power relations based on class, caste, ethnicity and religion.
WID- Women in Development model explains the reasons for women being treated as beneficiaries of the crumbs thrown at them, in the margin of the economy, consumer and an auxiliary labour force to be utilised in the crisis period and eased out the moment men are ready for take over. The discourse revolved around the economic growth paradigm.
WAD- Women and Development model integrates women in the development work as active change agents. Affirmative action by the state and pro-active approach by the civil society through NGOs and women's groups are advocated by these models for empowerment of women against the forces of patriarchal class society. NGOs-voluntary organisations implementing this approach have become powerful force during 1990s.
GAD - Gender and Development model is based on an understanding of gender relations and empowers the weak (he or she). Gender is socially constructed and gender relations are power relations. Here power is an important analytical category. Explicit measures of gender inequalities are sex-ratio, literacy rates, health and nutrition indicators, wage differentials, ownership of land and property. "The implicit relations are those embedded in relations of power and in hierarchies and are more difficult to measure. Located in the household, in custom, religion, and culture, these intra-household inequalities result in unequal distribution of power, control over resources and decision-making, dependence rather than self-reliance and unfair, unequal distribution of work, drudgery and even food."(Asha Kapur Mehta) Super women who are able to look after the interests of each and every stake group are survivors in this model. In the Indian context, gender relations are determined by the complex interplay of power relations based on class, caste, ethnicity and religion.

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Published by: Vibhuti Patel on Jan 08, 2011
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Women and DevelopmentFeminist Criticism of Development Indices and WID- WAD- GADDr. Vibhuti Patel, DIRECTOR, P.G.S. R.Professor and Head, Post Graduate Department of Economics,SNDT Women’s University,Smt. Nathibai Thakersey Road, Churchgate, Mumbai-400020Tel
L
91) (22) 22031879, Ext.243, Mobile-9321040048E mail:vibhuti.np@gmail.com(Presented at Refresher Course in Women's Studies from the 5th to the 29th of September2007 organised by Centre for women’s Studies at Academic Staff College, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram.)“Women constitute ½ of world’s population, do 2/3rd of world’s work,Get 1/10th of world’s income and own 1/100
th
of world’s wealth.”The United Nations, 2006.
Conventional indicators of development such as modernization, technological development,Mechanization, automation, urbanization, industrialization are critiqued by women’s studies asthey have bypassed and marginalized women as the above mentioned data reveals. They have provided three approaches to understand women’s role in the micro-meso and macro economy.There has been a coexistence of three approaches for women's development.
WID- Women in Development model
explains the reasons for women being treated as beneficiaries of the crumbs thrown at them, in the margin of the economy, consumer and anauxiliary labour force to be utilised in the crisis period and eased out the moment men are readyfor take over. The discourse revolved around the economic growth paradigm.
WAD- Women and Development
model integrates women in the development work as activechange agents. Affirmative action by the state and pro-active approach by the civil societythrough NGOs and women's groups are advocated by these models for empowerment of womenagainst the forces of patriarchal class society. NGOs-voluntary organisations implementing thisapproach have become powerful force during 1990s.
GAD - Gender and Development
model is based on an understanding of gender relations andempowers the weak (he or she). Gender is socially constructed and gender relations are power relations. Here power is an important analytical category. Explicit measures of gendeinequalities are sex-ratio, literacy rates, health and nutrition indicators, wage differentials,ownership of land and property. "The implicit relations are those embedded in relations of power and in hierarchies and are more difficult to measure. Located in the household, in custom,religion, and culture, these intra-household inequalities result in unequal distribution of power,control over resources and decision-making, dependence rather than self-reliance and unfair,unequal distribution of work, drudgery and even food."(Asha Kapur Mehta) Super women whoare able to look after the interests of each and every stake group are survivors in this model. In1
 
the Indian context, gender relations are determined by the complex interplay of power relations based on class, caste, ethnicity and religion.
Visibility of women in statistics and data system
- For effective execution of macro policiessuch as National Perspective Plan for Women, State Women's Policy, we need an accurate sexdisaggregated data-base, area studies and time allocation studies, studies on energy expenditureand food consumption patterns among women of different communities, public utility servicessuch as safe transport, public urinals, women's room in the office. Gender economists have done pioneering work to understand demographic profile of women and sex-ratio. Formulation of gender aware data system on literacy, education level, employment and earnings, health andwell-being helps proper planning and policy making for empowerment of women. Inter -district,Inter-state and Cross country comparisons of women's empowerment are obtained from Gender related Development Index(GDI). GDI owes its origin to its precursor, the HDI (HumanDevelopment Index), three main components of which are per capita income, educationalattainment and life-expectancy which is a proxy for health attainment. .Gender disparities aremeasured keeping these three indicators into consideration. "An additional measure, gender empowerment measure(GEM) has been formulated to take into account aspects relating toeconomic participation and decision-making by women. The indicators used in GEM are share inincome, share in parliamentary seats and an index that includes share in administrative andmanagerial jobs and share in professional and technical posts." (K. Seeta Prabhu, P.C. Sarkar andA. Radha. This exercise is done with a philosophical understanding that without engendering,human development is endangered. (UNDP, 1995)
Neoclassical versus Institutional Approach 
 Neoclassical approach of consumer’s rationality (Maximisation of utility) and producers’rationality (Maximisation of profit) has come under massive attack from the women’s studiesscholars as they find it ahistorical, simplistic and gender –neutral. Its philosophy of Laissez Fairedoes not acknowledge the unequal power relations determined by colonialism, neo-colonialismand segmentation in the labour, factor and product markets based on caste, class, ethnicity, race,religion, age and gender. As against this; institutional approach is found more realistic and henceappropriate as takes into consideration historical, socio-cultural, geographical and politicaldynamics in economic analysis.
Development Debate-Human Development Approach
Current development debate has resulted into generation of 
Meaningful Indicators of Womenand Development
Comparative data of 130 countries regarding gender-related developmentindex (GDI) reveals that gender-equality does not depend entirely on the income level of society.The human development approach which focuses on demographic, health, educational andhuman rights profiles have revealed that there is an urgent need to reexamine this approach byconducting participatory action research and rapid rural appraisal not by social scientists alone, but in collaboration with other professionals such as scientists, doctors- occupational health andsafety experts, engineers and lawyers who believe that like them, citizens from subsistence sector also have right to enjoy fruits of modern science and technology in terms of food security, safetransport, clean environment, secure housing and healthy life. India ranks 103
rd
in GDI and 104
th
in the HDI as, the Indian women enjoy nearly 1/5
th
of the total earned income, life expectancy of 60.4 years and 35.2 % adult literacy rate and combined primary, secondary and tertiary Grossenrollment ratio (GER) of 45.8. While their male counterparts enjoy 4/5
th
of the earned income,2
 
life expectancy of 60.3 years, 63.7 % adult literacy rate and combined primary, secondary andtertiary GER of 63.8. HDI for India is 0. 398 and GDI for India is 0.401. There is a gender gap of 0.003.
 
(Human Development Report, UNDP, OUP, Bombay, 1995, p.33.) As compared to their male counterparts women in India have higher life expectancy because women from the middleand upper classes live in a secure environment, produce one or two children and control food(kitchen) of the household.
Economic Basis and Functioning of Patriarchy and Matrilineal societies, structures andsystems
Patriachy thrives on control of women’s sexuality, fertility and labour for male hegemony over economic resources. Analytical tools provided by Gender Economics (GE) are extremely usefulto deal with the socio-economic and legal issues concerning marriage, divorce, custody of children, guardianship rights, alimony, maintenance, property rights of mother, sister, daughter,legally wedded wives and her child/ children, co-wives and their children, keeps and their children and the issues concerning adoption. GE has a special significance in the subsistenceeconomy, which uses the kinship networks, institutions of polygamy and polyandry for concentration and centralisation of wealth and capital by either the patriarchs or the matriarchs.Domestic animals, women and children are the main assets in the subsistence sector wherecollection of fuel, fodder, water are important components of daily life over and above agrarianchores, live-stock rearing and kitchen gardening.GE has drawn heavily from all mainstream disciplines and innumerable social movements of thelast three decades. GE provides insights to examine budgets of Government Organisations (GOs)and Non-Government Organisations (NGOs) from the point of view of gender justice. Priorityareas being women's education, health and nutrition, skill development, accounts, financial andcommercial viability, legal standing, asset and corpus building. GE contextualises day to daysurvival struggles of women in the family, in the households, in the community and in the micro,meso and macro economy with the perspective of power relations which control women and girlchildren's sexuality, fertility and labour.To explain this concept, I would like to give some examples from popular culture:
Control of women's sexuality
A)Dress code which, restricts mobility of women and girls, does not allow her to do thosechores which require flexible body movements, reduces her efficiency and employabilityin non-conventional occupations.B)"Tool" as a phallic symbol, not being allowed to be used by menstruating women as it issupposed to have contaminating influence. Hostility towards women who ride bicycles,drive cars and scooters, operate machines and use ploughs for farming, wheels for  pottery, saw for carpentry.C)Women being treated as repository of custom and tradition and cultural practices, dedicatedas
devdasis
,
 jogtis
and forced to undergo series of masochistic fasting, scarification andself infliction of pain which make them unemployable and perpetually dependant on the patriarchs. They enjoy only subversive power of a comfort woman that too, is mediated by men, as they don't have any legal rights. In the commercial context, the same happens3

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