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Classic Posters - Tips for Cataloging Posters

Classic Posters - Tips for Cataloging Posters

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Published by Michael Erlewine
These are articles on concert-music posters and poster collecting from the site ClassicPosters.com founded by award-winning archivist of popular culture Michael Erlewine who founded All-Music Guide, All-Movie Guide, Astrologyland.com and many other popular Internet sites. All articles copyright and written or produced by Michael Erlewine. Do visit ClassicPosters.com in its current incarnation.
These are articles on concert-music posters and poster collecting from the site ClassicPosters.com founded by award-winning archivist of popular culture Michael Erlewine who founded All-Music Guide, All-Movie Guide, Astrologyland.com and many other popular Internet sites. All articles copyright and written or produced by Michael Erlewine. Do visit ClassicPosters.com in its current incarnation.

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Published by: Michael Erlewine on Jan 09, 2011
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Classic Posters - Tips for Cataloging Posters
 
Classic Posters - Tips for Cataloging Posters
by Michael ErlewineI archive my information using the FoxProdatabase on the PC, since it is the fastestdatabase available for the PC. For those of youwho have no database experience (and may notbe ready for any), it is still worthwhile to paysome attention to how you store your data, sothat later, when you do want to database it, itwill be easier.It can be helpful to store your data inspreadsheet format using Excel or somethingsimilar. I would consider a spreadsheet as anintermediate step that will be useful later,when you need to move it to a true relationaldatabase.As a systems programmer, I will be happy tocome up with a separate article (and we canhave discussions) about how to set up a posterdatabase, but for now let's just keep it simple.You need some way to identify the posterimage with its name. I have had many years of experience with this, working with millions of records, so I do know what I am talking about.Ultimately, it is not helpful to try to encode adescription of the poster into the image filename. Sure, it is tempting to name a photoimage file "FD84.JPG," but this becomes moreproblematical for non-series posters like "Gropefor Peace.jpg," and so forth. Get a fewthousand of these named files in a directoryand you have a mess. After all, that is whatspreadsheets and databases were created for:linking one thing with another, an image with aposter description.It is best to simply number your files,numerically, perhaps using some sort of alphanumeric code as a header. Be sure tomake allowance for the total number of postersyou wish to document. For example, I mightuse the two-letter combination "CP" as aheader, followed by a numerical sequence.Thus: "CP00001," "CP00002," and on to"CP99999." Notice that I do not name the file"CP1," "CP2," and so on, since these names willnot sort or appear properly in a directory. Youneed the extra zeros, to make them sortproperly. That is how files can be named.At this point, we have shot some images,named them, and archived them to disk. Youmight think our job is over. Far from it. Thetime consuming part is just beginning.
Post-Processing Data: Compression
 I do my entire post-session image processingwith Photoshop, since it is (for me) the mostpowerful tool I have been able to find. I knowthere are other similar tools, which also do afine job.At this point, I have a directory of very largeimage files. Next, I process the files,converting each very large file to somethingmore manageable for day-to-day examination. Ireduce each file from its native (NEF 8 MB)format to about a one megabyte JPG file.Here is not the place for an extensivediscussion of compression formats, but let's do
 
Classic Posters - Tips for Cataloging Posters
 
say a few words to whet your appetite (or sendyou running). The problem is that these hugeimages (40 megabyte TIFF files, etc.) are VERYdifficult for the computer to handle, with anyspeed. They are slow to load, slow to modify,and slow to save. I am working on a dual-processor workstation with a megabyte of RAMand it is still slow!Therefore, I save the native original file andcreate a smaller, working file, as mentioned.With most forms of compression and all formsof extreme compression, there is some loss of information (read: quality) involved. And thereare many forms of compression, .JPG, .GIF andso forth, each with their positive and negativequalities. There is always a tradeoff. Thegreater the compression ratio, the smaller thefile (which is great), but also the poorer thequality of the compressed image (not so great),when it is later decompressed.So like most things in life, there is acompromise that must be negotiated. JPGcompression is a lossy compression that canhave a compression ratio from 2 to 100. Inother words, the JPG method can compress upto 100 times, which is a lot. For my purposes, Iam using JPG files compressed to a ratio of about 6, which is not a lot of compression.There are programs that allow you to controlthe amount of compression you want to use inyour JPGs. There are even programs that letyou compress one part of the image more thananother, so that you could preserve thefeatures in a person's face (for example), whilenot worrying about the ocean in thebackground. We won't go into that now, but itis interesting.Now I have a file that is about one megabyte insize, which my computer can play with and notbe slowed down to the point that nothing getsdone.
I. Cropping the Images by Michael Erlewine
 
Cropping
 Next, I load each image into Photoshop andcrop it. I separate it from the board on which itwas photographed. Since I am only using theseimages for identification purposes, thecropping can be "pretty good." If I were helpingone of you create a poster book for publication,we would have to take greater pains AND workwith the giant images.
Cropping in Photoshop
 
Note: When we are talking about photo-documenting posters, I want to emphasize what
 
Classic Posters - Tips for Cataloging Posters
 
should be obvious that if you wish to use theseposter images in a publication, you mustnegotiate that permission from the artist whocreated the image and perhaps with the venuethat contracted the work. For example, theFamily Dog images are under the copyright of Chet Helms. He would be the one to contact, if you wanted to publish a book with some of theFD series in it.
II. Adjusting Brightness Levels in Photoshop
 After cropping, the next step is to check theimage for any obvious problems, somethingthat could be corrected by adjusting the coloror brightness levels of the image. In almost allcases, some correction is required andPhotoshop makes this pretty easy. Using theADJUST LEVELS command, one can manipulatethe small histogram so that the point thatrepresents the blackest black is marked and thepoint the represents the whitest white is alsomarked. I won't go into all the details, but thegeneral idea is to balance the image, so that itis not too dark (can't see it) or too light(washed out). If you are going to use theseimages on the web in very small size, then youmay want to sharpen the image, as well.
 Adjusting the levels in Photoshop
 
Using the Levels feature in Photoshop, take alook at the small histogram and note if there isblank space on the left and right of the graph.In this case, there is space on both sides. Theyyou move the small triangles on either end andunder the black horizontal line, from the right
and left… in until they are under the st
art andend of the graph. In this illustration, I havemoved each inward, so that the left-handtriangle is at the beginning of the dark part of the image, and the right-hand image is at thebeginning of the light part of the image.Removing this dead space will give you goodlight levels for the image.

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