A History of Tanka in English
Pt I : The North American Foundation, 1899 - 1985
by M. KeiVersion 2011.1.4
(Corrections and comments to Keibooks at gmail dot com)
In 2006 I started compiling a tanka timeline because I was curious to see what had been published in the West and when. I excluded translations from the Japanese except when Idetermined they were works by poets located in the United States and Canada; my goal was totrace the history of tanka in English. At the time many poets, editors, critics, and readers laboredunder the impression that tanka was a minority genre of limited practice and only recent interestin English. In particular, it was often thought that tanka in North America began when it wasdiscovered by haiku poets in the 1970s and 80s. My research demonstrates that the field of tanka publication is large (more than one thousand titles so far), more than a hundred years old, andinadequately known and appreciated.Understanding the historical development of tanka in English is difficult. Translations of famous Japanese poets dominate the tanka dis course, but even so, these translations have beensubject to only limited critical analysis and publication. Very little attention has been given toAnglophone tanka, although that is slow changing. Even within the tanka community itself theemphasis is on praxis rather than theory or history. Yet clearly the mass and impetus of tankadevelopment in English deserves examination on its own merits and not as marginalia in thefields of haiku or Japanese tanka.Before meaningful analysis can be accomplished, certain basic facts of tanka history must beascertained and made public. Therefore this series of articles draws heavily on my
Bibliographyof English-Language Tanka
, available in the
Tanka Teachers Guide
(Modern English TankaPress, 2007) or at TankaCentral (updated yearly), hosted by MET Press at <http://TheMETPress.com>.
By examining multiple existing bibliographies (none of which were complete or up to date),using publisher catalogs, book reviews in journals, author biographies, used booksellers, theLibrary of Congress, the Worldcat.org catalog, university and library catalogs and collections,and where possible, contacting poets, editors and small presses directly for information, Icompiled a list of over one thousand books, chapbooks, journals and organizations, published in print, online, or other media, which are compiled in the
Bibliography of English-LanguageTanka.
Where items in this article differ from the published
, it is because myresearches are ongoing and supersede old information.In addition to books, I have identified over a thousand issues of periodicals that frequently published tanka in English (although not necessarily in every issue.) My principal source of information regarding relevant periodicals is the ‘Tanka Venues’ listing developed by MET Press