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Teaching Speaking

Teaching Speaking

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Published by Boe Amelia Nz

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Published by: Boe Amelia Nz on Jan 10, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Latifah Amelia (0755101)Semester VII.B
Curup BengkuluJanuary 2011
Teaching SpeakingA. Introduction
Speaking is "the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts" (Chaney, 1998, p. 13).Speaking is a crucial part of second language learning and teaching. Despite itsimportance, for many years, English language teachers have continued to teachspeaking just as a repetition of drills or memorization of dialogues. However, today'sworld requires that the goal of teaching speaking should improve students'communicative skills, because, only in that way, students can express themselves andlearn how to follow the social and cultural rules appropriate in each communicativecircumstance. In order to teach second language learners how to speak in the best way possible, some speaking activities are provided below, that can be applied to ESL andEFL classroom settings, together with suggestions for teachers who teach orallanguage. What Is "Teaching Speaking"?What is meant by "teaching speaking" is to teach ESL learners to:
Produce the English speech sounds and sound patterns
Use word and sentence stress, intonation patterns and the rhythm of thesecond language.
Select appropriate words and sentences according to the proper social setting,audience, situation and subject matter.
Organize their thoughts in a meaningful and logical sequence.
Use language as a means of expressing values and judgments.
Use the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural pauses, which iscalled as fluency. (Nunan, 2003)
B. How To Teach Speaking
 Now many linguistics and ESL teachers agree on that students learn to speak in the second language by "interacting". Communicative language teaching andcollaborative learning serve best for this aim. Communicative language teaching is2
 based on real-life situations that require communication. By using this method in ESLclasses, students will have the opportunity of communicating with each other in thetarget language. In brief, ESL teachers should create a classroom environment wherestudents have real-life communication, authentic activities, and meaningful tasks that promote oral language. This can occur when students collaborate in groups to achievea goal or to complete a task.
C. Activities To Teach Speaking (METHOD)Discussions
After a content-based lesson, a discussion can be held for various reasons. Thestudents may aim to arrive at a conclusion, share ideas about an event, or findsolutions in their discussion groups. Before the discussion, it is essential that the purpose of the discussion activity is set by the teacher. In this way, the discussion points are relevant to this purpose, so that students do not spend their time chattingwith each other about irrelevant things. For example, students can become involvedin agree/disagree discussions. In this type of discussions, the teacher can form groupsof students, preferably 4 or 5 in each group, and provide controversial sentences like“people learn best when they read vs. people learn best when they travel”. Then eachgroup works on their topic for a given time period, and presents their opinions to theclass. It is essential that the speaking should be equally divided among groupmembers. At the end, the class decides on the winning group who defended the ideain the best way. This activity fosters critical thinking and quick decision making, andstudents learn how to express and justify themselves in polite ways while disagreeingwith the others. For efficient group discussions, it is always better not to form largegroups, because quiet students may avoid contributing in large groups. The groupmembers can be either assigned by the teacher or the students may determine it bythemselves, but groups should be rearranged in every discussion activity so thatstudents can work with various people and learn to be open to different ideas. Lastly,in class or group discussions, whatever the aim is, the students should always be3

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