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Launch Vehicle Family Album

Launch Vehicle Family Album

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Published by Bob Andrepont

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Published by: Bob Andrepont on Jan 11, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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04/09/2011

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25
Rockets: A Teacher's Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and TechnologyEG-1999-06-108-H
Launch VehicleFamily AlbumT
he pictures on the next several pages serve as apartial "family album" of NASA launch vehicles.NASA did not develop all of the vehicles shown, buthas employed each in its goal of "exploring theatmosphere and space for peaceful purposes forthe benefit of all." The album contains historicrockets, those in use today, and concept designsthat might be used in the future. They are arrangedin three groups: rockets for launching satellites andspace probes, rockets for launching humans intospace, and concepts for future vehicles.The album tells the story of nearly 40 yearsof NASA space transportation. Rockets haveprobed the upper reaches of Earth's atmosphere,carried spacecraft into Earth orbit, and sentspacecraft out into the solar system and beyond.Initial rockets employed by NASA, such as theRedstone and the Atlas, began life asintercontinental ballistic missiles. NASA scientistsand engineers found them ideal for carryingmachine and human payloads into space. As theneed for greater payload capacity increased, NASAbegan altering designs for its own rockets andbuilding upper stages to use with existing rockets.Sending astronauts to the Moon required a biggerrocket than the rocket needed for carrying a smallsatellite to Earth orbit.Today, NASA's only vehicle for liftingastronauts into space is the Space Shuttle.Designed to be reusable, its solid rocket boostershave parachute recovery systems. The orbiter is awinged spacecraft that glides back to Earth. Theexternal tank is the only part of the vehicle whichhas to be replaced for each mission.Launch vehicles for the future will continueto build on the experiences of the past. Vehicleswill become more versatile and less expensive tooperate as new technologies become available.
 
26
Rockets: A Teacher's Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and TechnologyEG-1999-06-108-H
Most significant rocket developments have taken place in the twentieth century. After 1958, allentries in this timeline relate to NASA space missions. Provided here are the years in whichnew rocket systems were first flown. Additional information about these events can be found inthis guide on the pages indicated by parentheses.
   I  n  v  e  n   t   i  o  n   o  f  G  u  n   P  o  w  d  e  r  1  s   t   C  e  n   t  u  r  y   (    5   )
Rocket Timeline
  C   h   i  n  e  s  e   F   i  r  e   A  r  r  o  w  s  1  3   t   h   C  e  n   t  u  r  y   (   6   )  S   t  e  p    R  o  c   k  e   t  1  6   t   h   C  e  n   t  u  r  y   (   6   )
 L i q  u i d  P r o p e l l a n t  R o c k e t  -  1 9 2 6  (  8 )
  V 2   R o c  k e t  -  1 9 4 4  (  9  )
 J  u  p  i  t e  r   C   l a  u  n c  h  o  f   E  x  p  l o  r e  r   1  -   1  9  5  8  (   9   1  0   2  7  )
  M e  r c  u  r  y   R e d  s  t o  n e  -   1  9  6  1   (   1  0   2  9  )
  D  e   l  t  a ,    S  c  o  u  t  -   1  9  6  0   (   2   7   )
  A  t   l  a  s  -   1  9  6  3   (   1  0 ,    2  9   )
     T     i     t   a    n      I     I     I   -     1    9     7    4      (      2     8     ) 
  G  e  m   i  n   i    T   i   t  a  n   -   1   9  6   5   (   1  1 ,     2   8 ,    3   0   )
   A   p  o    l    l  o    S  a   t   u   r   n     V   -    1   9   6   8    (    1   1 ,     3   1    ) 
   A  p  o   l   l  o    S  a   t  u  r  n   1   B   -   1   9   6   8    (   1  1 ,   3   0   )
    S    k   y    l   a    b     S   a    t   u   r   n     V   -    1    9    7   3     (    1   1 ,     3   1    ) 
     A    p     o      l      l    o   -     S    o    p     y     u    z      S    a     t    u    r    n      1      B    -      1     9      7     5      (       1     1 ,       3     0      ) 
   A   p   o    l    l   o     S   a    t   u   r   n    1    B   -    1    9   6    8     (    1   1 ,     3   0    ) 
      S     p      a      c     e       S       h     u      t       t        l     e    -       1      9      8      1       (        1      2 ,         3      2       )  
            P        e        g           a         s         u        s     -           1           9           9           0            (               2           8            )   
               D          e                l              t            a               C                l               i           p              p             e            r       -              1              9              9               5               (                   3              3               )    
                      X                      R               o               c                       k               e                     t                s          -                    2                    0                      ?                     ?                     (                           3                    4                      )      
 1 9 0 0
      2      0      0      0
        2        0        0        0     +
Centuries
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 211 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
  C  o  n  g   r  e  v  e    R  o  c   k  e   t  s  1  9   t   h   C  e  n   t  u  r  y   (    7   )
 
27
Rockets: A Teacher's Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and TechnologyEG-1999-06-108-H
Rockets for LaunchingSatellites and Space Probes
NASA's Scout
 
rocket is a four-stage solidrocket booster that can launch small satellitesinto Earth orbit. The Scout
 
can carry about a140 kilogram payload to a 185 kilometer highorbit. NASA used the Scout for more than 30years. This 1965 launch carried the
Explorer 27 
scientific satellite.One of NASA's most successful rockets is theDelta
.
The Delta
 
can be configured in avariety of ways to change its performance tomeet needs of the mission. It is capable ofcarrying over 5,000 kilograms to a 185kilometer high orbit or 1,180 kilograms to ageosynchronous orbit with an attachedbooster stage. This Delta
 
lifted the
Galaxy-C 
communication satellite to space onSeptember 21, 1984.Engineers prepare the Jupiter-C rocketthat carried
Explorer 1
into space onJanuary 31, 1958.

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