are bound by a single membrane and contain highly acidic fluid. The fluid acts as digestingenzymes for breaking down bacteria and cell debris. They play an important from in the cells of the immunesystem.8.
are also bound by a single membrane. They consume oxygen and work to drive reactions thatremove hydrogen from various molecules in the form of hydrogen peroxide. They are important inmaintaining the chemical balances within the cell.9. The
is a filamentous network of proteins that are associated with the processes that maintain andchange cell shape and produce cell movements in animal and bacteria cells. In plants, it is responsible for maintaining structures within the plant cell, rather then whole cell movement. The cytoskeleton also formstracks along which cell organelles move propelled by contractile proteins attached to their various surfaces.Like a little highway infrastructure inside the cell.
Three types of filaments
make up the cytoskeleton.1.
are the thinnest and most abundant of the cytoskeleton proteins. They are composed of actin, a contractile protein, and can be assembled and disassembled quickly according to the needs of the cell or organelle structure.2.
are slightly larger in diameter and are found most extensively in regions of cells that are going to be subjected to stress. Once these filaments are assembled they are not capable of rapid disassembly.3.
are hollow tubes composed of a protein called tubulin. They are the thickest and most rigidof the filaments. Microtubules are present in the axons and long dendrite projections of nerve cells.They are capable of rapid assembly and disassembly according to need. Microtubules are structuredaround a cell region called the centrosome, which surrounds two centrioles composed of 9 sets of fusedmicrotubules. These are important in cell division when the centrosome generates the microtubluar spindle fibers necessary for chromosome separation.10.
It is necessary to note a bit about the form of chloroplasts, as you will encounter them throughout this tutorial.Inside a chloroplast is a matrix called the stroma. Enzymes are found in the stroma as well as grana—stacksof coin-shaped discs, called thylakoids. It is within the thylakoids that photosynthesis takes place. Note thatchloroplasts, like mitochondria contain their own DNA. They do rely on proteins from the nucleus, and areconsidered semi-autonomous organelles. Photosynthesis will be discussed in greater detail in the PlantMetabolism tutorial.11.
Plant cells are also notorious for having huge vacuoles. Up to 90% of the volume of a mature cell may be taken up by a single large vacuole or several vacuoles. The vacuole is bound by a special membrane, called thetonoplast, and contains cell sap—which is composed of dissolved substances and may include pigments.
PLANT TISSUE CULTUREINTRODUCTION
Most methods of plant transformation applied to genetically modified crops require that a whole plant is regeneratedfrom isolated plant cells or tissues that have been genetically trans- formed. This regeneration is conducted in vitro sothat the environment and growth medium can be manipulated to ensure a high frequency of regeneration. In addition tothis, the re- generable cells must be accessible to gene transfer by whatever technique is chosen (gene- transfer methods are described in Chapter 3). The primary aim is therefore to produce, as easily and as quickly as possible, alarge number of regenerable cells that are accessible to gene transfer. The subsequent regeneration step is often themost difficult step in plant transformation studies. However, it is important to remember that a high frequency of regeneration does not necessarily correlate with high transformation efficiency.This chapter will consider some basic issues concerned with plant tissue culture in vitro, particularly as applied to plant transformation. It will also look at the basic culture types used for plant transformation and cover some of thetechniques that can be used to regenerate whole transformed plants from transformed cells or tissue.