Directional trends- occur in a regular direction reflecting the development of neuromuscular function.These apply to physical, mental, social and emotional development and includes.a.cephalo-caudal “head to tail”-occurs along bodies long axis in which control over head, mouth and eye movements and precedes control over upper body torso and legs. b.proximo- distal “Centro distal”-progressing form center of body to extremities.c.Symmetrical- at side of body develop on same direction at same time at same rate.d.Mass specific “differentiation”- child learns form simple operations before complex function of move from a broad general patternof behavior. To a bore refined pattern.B. Sequential- involves a predictable sequence of G&D to which the child no9rmally passes.a. locomotion- creep than crawls, sit then stand. b. socio and language skills- solitary games, parallel gamesC. Secular- worldwide trend of maturing earlier and growing larger as compared to succeeding generations.5.Behavioral in the most compressive indicator of developmental status.6.universal language of child- play7. great deal of skill and behavior is learned by practice. Practice makes perfect.9. neonatal reflexes us must be lost before one can proceed.-plantar reflex should disappear before baby can walk -moro reflex should disappear before baby can roll persistent primitive infantile reflexes- case of cerebral palsyTheories of G&DDevelopmental tasks- different form chronological age-skill or growth responsibility arising at a particular time in the individuals life.The successful achievement of which will ------- a foundation for the accomplishments of future tasks.Theorists1.
1856-1939 Austrian neurologists. Founder of psychoanalysis- offered personality developmentPsychosexual theorya.)
Oral Phase 0-18 months
- mouths site of gratification-activity of infant- biting, sucking crying.-why do babies suck?- enjoyment and release of tension.-provide oral stimulation even if baby was placed on NPO.-pacifier.-never discourage thumb sucking. b.)
ANAL- 18 months-3 years
-site of gratification- anus-activity- elimination, retention or defecation of feces make take place- principle of holding on or letting go.-mother wins or child wins-child wins- stubborn, hardheaded anti social. (anak pupu na, child holds pupu, child wins)-mother wins- obedient, kind, perfectionist, meticulousOC-anal phase-help child achieve bowel and bladder control even if child is hospitalized.c.)
Phallic- 3-6 years
site of gratification-genitalsactivity- may show exhibitionism-increase knowledge of a sexes-accept child fondling his/her own genitalia as normal exploration