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Projektovanje Tehnologije Livenja - Predavanja

Projektovanje Tehnologije Livenja - Predavanja

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Published by Lengyel Robert
Predavanje za projektovanje livenje pod pritiskom
Predavanje za projektovanje livenje pod pritiskom

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Published by: Lengyel Robert on Jan 12, 2011
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SADRŽAJ
.01 PROJEKTOVANJE LIVNICA .............................................................................................................51.1. CILj PROJEKTOVANjA .................................................................................................................51.2. OSNOVNI PRILAZ PROJEKTOVANjU ........................................................................................61.3. PROJEKTOVANjE KAO LOGIČKI PROCES ...............................................................................61.4. REZULTATI PRIMENE SAVREMENIH METODA PROJEKTOVANjA ....................................91.5. SISTEMSKI PRISTUP ....................................................................................................................91.6. MODEL .........................................................................................................................................101.7. IZGRADNjA OBJEKATA ............................................................................................................101.8. IZRADA I PRIKUPLjANjE PREDPROJEKTNE DOKUMENTACIJE. PRETHODNE ANALIZE...............................................................................................................................................................111.9. PROJEKTNI ZADATAK ..............................................................................................................121.10. IZBOR LOKACIJE ......................................................................................................................121.11. PROGRAM PROIZVODNjE .......................................................................................................131.12. OBIM PROIZVODNjE I TEHNIČKI KAPACITET LIVNICE ...................................................141.13. SASTAV LIVNICA .....................................................................................................................151.13.1. Proizvodna odeljenja: ............................................................................................................151.13.2. Pomoćna odeljenja, radionice i skladišta:...............................................................................151.13.3. Postrojenja za proizvodnju i raspodelu energije: ...................................................................151.13.4. Postrojenja koja obezbeđuju potrebne uslove za rad: ............................................................151.14. PODELA LIVNICA .....................................................................................................................161.14.1. Podela livnica prema vrsti metala..........................................................................................161.14.2. Podela livnica sivog liva prema težinskim i gabaritnim karakteristikama proizvoda ............161.14.3. Podela livnica prema obimu proizvodnje ..............................................................................161.14.4. Podela livnica prema tipu proizvodnje ..................................................................................171.14.5. Podela livnica prema stepenu mehanizovanosti ....................................................................171.15. DOPUŠTENE I NEDOPUŠTENE KOMBINACIJE POJEDINIH VRSTA LIVA U JEDNOJLIVNICI ...............................................................................................................................................221.16. OSNOVNI TEHNIČKO-EKONOMSKI POKAZATELJI ...........................................................22.02 OPŠTA UPUTSTVA ZA PROJEKTOVANJE LIVNICA ..................................................................242.1. SADRŽAJ TEHNOLOŠKOG PROJEKTA ...................................................................................242.2. OBAVEZNI OPŠTI PRILOZI U PROJEKTU ...............................................................................252.3. USLOVI ZA PROJEKTOVANJE ..................................................................................................252.4. POTREBNE SAGLASNOSTI NA INVESTICIONO - TEHNIČKU DOKUMENTACIJU ODSTRANE NADLEŽNIH ORGANA I ORGANIZACIJA .....................................................................252.5. TEHNOLOŠKI PROJEKAT ..........................................................................................................262.6. DOKUMENTACIJA TEHNOLOŠKOG PROJEKTA ...................................................................262.6.1. Idejni projekat .........................................................................................................................262.6.2. Glavni projekat .......................................................................................................................262.7. REŽIM RADA ...............................................................................................................................262.8. FOND VREMENA RADA ............................................................................................................272.9. PRORAČUNPROIZVODNE OPREME.........................................................................................272.10. PRORAČUN RADNE SNAGE ...................................................................................................28.03 TEHNOLOŠKI PROCES LIVNICE ...................................................................................................293.1. TOPIONICA ..................................................................................................................................313.1.1. Izbor peći.................................................................................................................................333.1.2. PRORAČUN KAPACITETA KUPOLNIH PEĆI ..................................................................333.1.3. IZBOR TIPA PEĆI .................................................................................................................373.1.4. Predpećica................................................................................................................................423.1.5. Proračun kapaciteta elektro indukcione peći............................................................................44.........................................................................................................................................................443.1.6. Proračun kapaciteta elektro lučnih peći ...................................................................................483.2. RADNA SNAGA ...........................................................................................................................493.3. IZBOR NAČINA ŠARŽIRANJA ..................................................................................................503.3.1. Mehanizovano šaržiranje ........................................................................................................503.3.2. Šaržiranje skip uređajem sa specijalnom korpom ....................................................................503.3.3. Šaržiranje pomoću mosnih i jednošinih dizalica .....................................................................513.3.4. Šeme pojedinih potrojenja za šaržiranje kupolnih peći............................................................52
 
.04 KALUPOVANJE ................................................................................................................................584.1. TEHNOLOŠKI PROCES KALUPOVANJA .................................................................................584.1.1. Utvrđivanje optimalnog načina izrade kalupa .........................................................................604.2. Utvrđivanje veličine serije ..............................................................................................................614.2.1. Ručna izrada kalupa ................................................................................................................624.2.2. Kalupovanje u suvom kalupu ..................................................................................................624.2.3. Mašinska izrada kalupa ...........................................................................................................624.2.4. Mašine za kalupovanje vazduhom pod pritiskom i dodatnim presovanjem .............................654.2.5. Kaluparske mašine pa principu "upucavanja" kalupne mešavine u kalup ...............................654.2.6. Kaluparske mašine na priicipu udara sabijenog vazduha ........................................................664.2.7. Postavljanje mašina..................................................................................................................674.3. Opšta rešenja kaluparpica ...............................................................................................................684.4. BEZOKVIRNO KALUPOVANJE SA VERTIKALNOM PODELOM .........................................704.5. IZRADA KALUPA SA SAMOOČVRŠĆAVAJUBIM VEZIVIMA .............................................734.6. PRORAČUN I IZBOR KONTINUALNO MEŠAČA ....................................................................74.05 PRIPREMA PESKA ...........................................................................................................................765.1. Priprema peska kao posebna jedinica .............................................................................................785.1.1. Priprema peska kao proizvodna jedinica vezana za ostale instalacije ......................................795.1.2. Istresna rešetka ........................................................................................................................795.1.3. Magnetni odvajač ....................................................................................................................805.1.4. Rotaciono sito .........................................................................................................................815.1.5. Bunkeri....................................................................................................................................825.1.6. Dozeri......................................................................................................................................825.1.7. Mešalice peska.........................................................................................................................825.1.8. Dozeri pripremljenog peska.....................................................................................................835.1.9. Bunker za pripremljen i pesak .................................................................................................835.1.10. Aerator ..................................................................................................................................845.2. HLAĐENJE KALUPARSKOG PESKA ........................................................................................855.3. REGENERACIJA PESKA .............................................................................................................875.3.1. Metod rada Turbo dry postrojenja ...........................................................................................885.4. POVRŠINA PRIPREME PESKA...................................................................................................905.5. RADNA SNAGA ...........................................................................................................................90.06 IZRADA JEZGARA............................................................................................................................916.1. IZBOR TIPA MAŠINA ZA IZRADU JEZGARA .........................................................................926.1.1. Klasifikacija mašina za izradu jezgara ....................................................................................926.2. Automatsko postavljanje jezgara.....................................................................................................956.3. SUŠENJE JEZGARA ....................................................................................................................966.3.1. Postupak CO2..........................................................................................................................966.3.2. Komorne sušare za jezgra .......................................................................................................966.3.3. Vertikalne sušare .....................................................................................................................976.3.4. Postupak toplih kutija (Hot Box) ............................................................................................976.3.5. Postupak sa brzovezujućim vezivima ......................................................................................976.3.6. Postupak Shell (školjka) ..........................................................................................................976.3.7. Postupak Cold-Box .................................................................................................................976.3.8. Postupak HARDEX-SO2 ........................................................................................................986.4. Završna obrada jezgara ...................................................................................................................98.07 ODELJENJE ZΑ ČIŠĆENJE ..............................................................................................................997.1. ISTRESANJE ODLIVAKA .........................................................................................................1007.2. HLAĐENJE ODLIVAKA ...........................................................................................................1017.3. ODBIJANJE ULIVNOG SISTEMA ............................................................................................1017.4. GRUBO ČIŠĆENJE (IZBIJANJE JEZGARA) ............................................................................1027.5. ČIŠĆENJE ODLIVAKA SAČMOM ...........................................................................................1047.6. Doboši za čišćenje sa centrifugalnim kolom ................................................................................1057.7. Komore za čišćenje.......................................................................................................................1067.7.1. Komore za čišćenje sačmom pomoću komprimovanog vazduha ..........................................1067.8. OBRUBLJIVANJE ODLIVAKA ................................................................................................1077.9. BRUŠENJE ODLIVAKA ............................................................................................................1087.10. POPRAVKA ODLIVAKA ........................................................................................................1087.11. TERMIČKA OBRADA ODLIVAKA ........................................................................................1097.12. KONTROLA ODLIVAKA ........................................................................................................1097.13. GRUBA OBRADA I OBRADA REPERNIH TAČAKA ...........................................................1092
 
.08 SKLADIŠTA .....................................................................................................................................1108.1. SKLADIŠTA SIROVINA ............................................................................................................1118.2. NORMATIV I ZALIHA I POTREBNIH KOLIČINA MATERIJALA .......................................1128.3. MEHANIZACIJA SKLADIŠTA .................................................................................................1158.3.1. Istovar vagona .......................................................................................................................1158.4. Transport materijala ka skladištu ..................................................................................................1178.5. USKLADIŠTENJE GOTOVIH PROIZVODA ............................................................................1178.6. Prijem ...........................................................................................................................................1188.7. Glavno skladište ...........................................................................................................................1188.7.1. Sistem sa stalnim lokacijama. ...............................................................................................1188.7.2. Sistem sa slučajnim lokacijama. ............................................................................................1198.7.3. Podela skladišta na zone. .......................................................................................................1198.8. Prikupljanje i sortiranje porudžbina (priprema robe za distribuciju) ............................................1218.9. Planiranje toka materijala .............................................................................................................1228.10. Pakovanje ...................................................................................................................................1238.11. Utovar i otprema ........................................................................................................................1238.12. Planiranje toka materijala ...........................................................................................................1238.13. OBLIKOVANJE PROSTORA SKLADIŠTA GOTOVOH PROIZVODA ................................1238.14. ODREĐIVANJE POVRŠINE SKLADIŠTA .............................................................................1258.15. Blok skladište .............................................................................................................................1268.16. Skladišta sa regalima ..................................................................................................................1268.17. PRORAČUN SKLADIŠTA GOTOVIH PROIZVODA .............................................................1308.18. Pokazatelji rada skladišta ...........................................................................................................1318.19. PRIPREMA MATERIJALA ......................................................................................................1318.19.1. Sečenje materijala ...............................................................................................................1318.19.2. Priprema koksa ....................................................................................................................1328.19.3. Priprema krečnjaka .............................................................................................................1328.19.4. Priprema šarže .....................................................................................................................1328.20. Čišćenje ulivaka od izgorelog peska ...........................................................................................1328.21. Lomara .......................................................................................................................................132.09 TRANSPORT U LIVNICAMA.........................................................................................................1349.1. TRANSPORT I TRANSPORTNA SREDSTVA U LIVNICAMA ..............................................1349.2. ELEKTRIČNE DIZALICE ..........................................................................................................1359.2.1. Mosne dizalice ......................................................................................................................1359.3. Proračun transportnog učinka .......................................................................................................1369.4. SKIP UREĐAJI ...........................................................................................................................1389.5. UREĐAJI NEPREKIDNOG TRANSPORTA .............................................................................1399.5.1. Trakasti trapsporteri ..............................................................................................................1399.6. Kofičasti transporteri ....................................................................................................................1449.7. Pločasti trapsporteri .....................................................................................................................1469.8. Transporteri sa zavojnim vretenom - pužni transporteri ...............................................................1479.9. Valjkasti traisporteri - rolganzi .....................................................................................................1489.10. Livnički konvejeri ....................................................................................................1499.10.1. Konvejeri podnog transporta ...............................................................................................1509.10.2. Veseći konvejeri ..................................................................................................................1509.11. PNEUMATSKI TRANSPORT ..................................................................................................1519.12. MOBILNI TRANSPORTNI UREĐAJI .....................................................................................153.010 ZGRADE LIVNICA ........................................................................................................................15510.1. PRIZEMNE ZGRADE................................................................................................................15710.2. SPRATNE ZGRADE..................................................................................................................15810.3. PRIRODNO OSVETLJENJE ZGRADA ...................................................................................16010.4. SPECIFIČAN PRITISAK NA POD OD RAZLIČITIH VRSTA OPTEREĐENJA (kN/m2) ....162.011 GREJANJE, PROVETRAVANJE I OTPRAŠIVANJE ..................................................................16311.1. GREJANJE ...........................................................................................................................16311.1.1. Opšte postavke problema grejanja u livnici .........................................................................16411.2. PROVETRAVANJE I OTPRAŠIVANJE ..................................................................................16511.2.1. PRIMERI METODA INAČINA HVATANJA PRAŠINE NA IZVORU SA KOLIČINAMAVAZDUHA KOJE TREBA OTSISATI ..........................................................................................17011.2.2. Otprašivanje kupolnih peći ..................................................................................................17311.2.3. Otprašivanje indukcionih peći .............................................................................................17311.2.4. Otprašivanje elektro - lučnih peći .......................................................................................1733

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