There are only three known egg laying mammals(monotremes) in the world. These are two speciesof Echidna (one is only found in New Guinea) andthe other is the Platypus.
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Each spine of the Echidna is formed from a singlehair.The Echidna uses all four feet to dig.When the Echidna is disturbed or threatened it willroll into a ball or burrow into the ground so thatonly its spines are exposed.A baby Echidna is called a ‘puggle’.The Short-beaked Echidna is featured on theAustralian 5c piece.
The Echidna ranges from 35-52cm in length. It canweigh up to 6kg, but the females are usuallysmaller than the males.Echidnas are covered with a fur that can range incolour from reddish to dark brown. The spines onthe backs of Echidnas are modified hairs that varyin colour from cream to black. Their spines canreach up to 50mm in length. The proportion of hairto spines varies according to climate, so Echidnasfrom cold areas have more and denser hair thanEchidnas from the warmer north-west of Victoria.The Echidna’s snout is 7-8cm long and is used topoke into rotten logs and termite mounds that havebeen broken into with the Echidna’s feet. Themouth is positioned right at the end of the snout.The Echidna’s tongue is very long and stickyenabling it to collect large numbers of ants andtermites when feeding.The front feet of the Echidna have five flattenedclaws which are designed for digging burrows andtearing open logs and termite mounds. Their hindfeet point backwards so the soil can be pushedaway when the Echidna is burrowing. They alsocommonly use their back claws for grooming.The tail of the Echidna is very short and hairlessunderneath.
Short-beaked Echidna © I. McCann DSE 2009
Echidnas feed mainly on ants and termites thoughthey have been known to eat other invertebrates.They feed generally during morning and eveningwhich are the cooler periods of the day.They have a very acute sense of smell which theyrely on to detect food. Once the food is locatedthey then use their long sticky tongue to catch theirprey. Echidnas have no teeth so instead they grindtheir food between the tongue and the roof of theirmouth.
The Echidna is usually found in open heathland,forests, woodlands, scrublands and grasslands,among vegetation or in hollow logs. In poorweather, they will often shelter under bushes orburrow into the soil.You will most likely see an Echidna during earlymorning or late evening as they avoid extremetemperatures.The Echidna does not defend a territory, but willinstead wander over its large home range.