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UNIT 1IntroductionEvolution and nature of Organizational Behavior
The knowledge and information explosion, global competition, total quality anddiversity are some of the bitter realities that the managers are facing today. Thereare many solutions being offered to deal with these complex challenges. Yet thesimple but most profound solution may be found in the words of Sam Walton, therichest person in the world and the founder of Wal-Mart. Sam was once asked thekey to successful organizations and management. Sam quickly replied, "Peopleare the key".The term paradigm comes from the Greek word 'paradigma', which means''model, pattern or example". First introduced over thirty years ago, by thephilosophy and science historian Thomas Khun, the term "paradigm" is now usedas, a broad model, a framework, a way of thinking, and a scheme forunderstanding reality. The impact of information technology, total quality anddiversity mentioned earlier has led to a paradigm shift.
The organizational behaviour has a goal lo help the managers make a transition tothe new paradigm. Some of the new paradigm characteristics include coverage of second-generation information technology and total quality management such asempowerment, reengineering and benchmarking, and learning organization formanaging diversity of work. The new paradigm sets the stage for the study,understanding, and application of the time-tested micro-variables, dynamics andmacro-variables. One must know why management needs a new perspective tomeet the environmental challenges and to shift to a new paradigm.
A NEW PERSPECTIVE FOR MANAGEMENT
Management is generally considered to have three major dimensions—technical,conceptual and human. The technical dimension consists of the manager'sexpertise in particular functional areas. They know the requirements of the jobsand have the functional knowledge to get the job done. But the practicingmanagers ignore the conceptual and human dimensions of their jobs.Most managers think that their employees are lazy, and are interested onlyin money, and that if you could make them happy in terms of money, they wouldbe productive. If such assumptions are accepted, the human problems that themanagement is facing are relatively easy to solve.But human behaviour at work is much more complicated and diverse. Thenew perspective assumes that employees are extremely complex and that there isa need for theoretical understanding given by empirical research beforeapplications can be made for managing people effectively.
MODERN APPROACH TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
The modern approach to organizational behaviour is the search for the truth of why people behave the way they do. The organizational behaviour is a delicateand complex process. If one aims to manage an organization, it is necessary to