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Published by samaresh chhotray

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Categories:Types, Business/Law
Published by: samaresh chhotray on Jan 12, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Samaresh chhotray 9717219922CA/MBAcssrc1974@gmail.comsamareshfinance.hpage.com
Organizational Behaviour - What managers do, definition of OB, contributingdiscipline to OB, challenges and opportunities for OB.Foundations of Individual behaviour - biographical characteristics, ability, andlearning.Values, Attitudes and Job satisfaction.Personality and EmotionsPerception.
Section II
Concept, Theories of Maslow, Herzberg, McCelland, Porter & LawlerModel, Application of Motivation concept.Foundations of Group Behaviour - Group formation, development and structure,group processes, group decision – making techniques, work teams.Interpersonal Skill - Transactional analysis, Life Positions, Johari Window.Leadership: Concept, theories, Styles and their application.
Section III
Power and politics in organizationConflict Management, Stress Management, Crisis ManagementOrganisational Change & Development, innovation, creating learning organizationOrganisational CultureOrganisational Effectiveness.
Samaresh chhotray 9717219922CA/MBAcssrc1974@gmail.comsamareshfinance.hpage.com
UNIT 1IntroductionEvolution and nature of Organizational Behavior
The knowledge and information explosion, global competition, total quality anddiversity are some of the bitter realities that the managers are facing today. Thereare many solutions being offered to deal with these complex challenges. Yet thesimple but most profound solution may be found in the words of Sam Walton, therichest person in the world and the founder of Wal-Mart. Sam was once asked thekey to successful organizations and management. Sam quickly replied, "Peopleare the key".The term paradigm comes from the Greek word 'paradigma', which means''model, pattern or example". First introduced over thirty years ago, by thephilosophy and science historian Thomas Khun, the term "paradigm" is now usedas, a broad model, a framework, a way of thinking, and a scheme forunderstanding reality. The impact of information technology, total quality anddiversity mentioned earlier has led to a paradigm shift.
 The organizational behaviour has a goal lo help the managers make a transition tothe new paradigm. Some of the new paradigm characteristics include coverage of second-generation information technology and total quality management such asempowerment, reengineering and benchmarking, and learning organization formanaging diversity of work. The new paradigm sets the stage for the study,understanding, and application of the time-tested micro-variables, dynamics andmacro-variables. One must know why management needs a new perspective tomeet the environmental challenges and to shift to a new paradigm.
 Management is generally considered to have three major dimensions—technical,conceptual and human. The technical dimension consists of the manager'sexpertise in particular functional areas. They know the requirements of the jobsand have the functional knowledge to get the job done. But the practicingmanagers ignore the conceptual and human dimensions of their jobs.Most managers think that their employees are lazy, and are interested onlyin money, and that if you could make them happy in terms of money, they wouldbe productive. If such assumptions are accepted, the human problems that themanagement is facing are relatively easy to solve.But human behaviour at work is much more complicated and diverse. Thenew perspective assumes that employees are extremely complex and that there isa need for theoretical understanding given by empirical research beforeapplications can be made for managing people effectively.
The modern approach to organizational behaviour is the search for the truth of why people behave the way they do. The organizational behaviour is a delicateand complex process. If one aims to manage an organization, it is necessary to
Samaresh chhotray 9717219922CA/MBAcssrc1974@gmail.comsamareshfinance.hpage.com
understand its operation. Organization is the combination of science and people.While science and technology is predictable, the human behaviour in organizationis rather unpredictable. This is because it arises from deep needs and valuesystems of people.
Scientific Management Approach
Scientific management approach was developed by F.W. Taylor at the beginningof the 20th century. This theory supported the use of certain steps in scientificallystudying each element of a job, selecting and training the best workers for the jobarid making sure that the workers follow the prescribed method of doing the job.It provided a scientific rationale for job specialization and mass production. Hisassumption was that employees are motivated largely by money. To increase theoutput, Taylor advised managers to pay monetary incentives to efficient workers.Yet, his theory was criticized by many employers and workers. Workersobjected to the pressure of work as being harder and faster. Critics worried thatthe methods took the humanity out of labor, reducing workers to machinesresponding to management incentives. Therefore, Taylor's view is now consideredinadequate and narrow due to the points given by the critics.
Bureaucratic Approach
 While scientific management was focusing on the interaction between workers andthe task, me researchers were studying how to structure the organization moreeffectively. Instead of trying to make each worker more efficient, classicalorganization theory sought the most effective overall organizational structure forworkers and managers.The theory's most prominent advocate, Max Weber, proposed a'bureaucratic form' of structure, which he thought would work for allorganizations. Weber's idea! bureaucracy was , logical, rational and efficient. Hemade the naive assumption that one structure would work best for allorganizations.Henry Ford, Henry Fayol and Frederick W. Taylor, the early managementpioneers, recognized the behavioral side of management. However, they did notemphasize the human dimensions. Although there were varied and complexreasons for the emerging importance of behavioral approach to management, it isgenerally recognized that the Hawthorne studies mark the historical roots for thefield of organizational behaviour.
Hawthorne Studies
 Even, as Taylor and Weber brought attention with their rational, logicalapproaches to more efficient productivity, their views were criticized on theground that both approaches ignored worker's humanity.The real beginning of applied research in the area of organizationalbehaviour started with Hawthorne Experiments. In 1924, a group of professorsbegan an enquiry into the human aspects of work and working conditions at theHawthorne plant of Western Electric Company, Chicago. The findings of thesestudies were given a new name 'human relations' the studies brought out a

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