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Table Of Contents

Historical aspects of table olives
Historical aspects of Australian table olives
Cultural perspectives regarding table olives
International table olive trade
Australian table olive trade activities
Australian table olive perspectives
Table olive activities in Australia
Australian table olive trade
Activities undertaken by Australian table olive growers/processors
Australian table olive production
Australian table olive imports
Australian table olive exports
Australian table olive consumption
Natural history of the olive tree
Natural history of olive production
Principal components of the olive tree
Olive leaves
Olive roots
Olive trunk, branches and stems
Olive suckers
Annual olive events
Critical water requirements
Vegetative growth in the olive
Reproductive development in the olive
Olive flower fertilisation and fruit set
Olive fruit development and growth
Stages of olive fruit growth
Biennial bearing (alternate bearing) and the olive tree
Olive fruit
Description of olive fruit
Olive fruit shape and size
General physical features of olive fruit
Olive exocarp (epidermis and cuticle)
Olive fruit flesh (mesocarp)
Olive endocarp and embryo
Moisture content of raw olives
Flesh to stone ratio of olives
Oil content of raw olive flesh
Carbohydrate levels in raw olive flesh
Phenolic substances in raw olive flesh
Protein levels in raw olive flesh
Pigments in raw olive flesh
Mineral content of raw olive flesh
Further components in raw olive flesh
Natural microbiological flora on olive fruit
Changes in olive flesh resistance during maturation
Internationally important table olive varieties
Important table olive varieties
Selected characteristics for table olive varieties
Additional table olive varieties grown in Australia
Basic requirements of raw olives
Planning for table olive production
Starting to grow table olives
Planning the table olive orchard
Local government and agency requirements for growing olives
Climatic considerations
Chilling hours
Heat degree-days and radiation
Frost prone areas and extremely low temperatures
Olive varieties and table olive processing
New varietal considerations for table olives in Australia
Establishment of the table olive orchard
Olive orchard design
Soil requirements
Olive tree maintenance for quality olive production
Soil management
Fertilisers and manures
Organic manures
Nitrogen fertilisers
Potassium fertilisers
Phosphate fertilisers
Olive orchard nutrition specifics
Trace elements for olive trees
Fertiliser requirements and monitoring nutritional status
Irrigation requirements for olive production
Olive productivity
Maintenance of the olive tree
Pruning tips for olive trees
Stress factors and diseases that can affect olive trees
Pests and disease management
Integrated pest management
Maturation states for table olive production
Harvesting for table olive production
Post-harvest handling of raw olives
Table olive processing methods and varieties
Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and table olives
Water requirements for table olive production
Planning table olive processing facilities
Functional table olive processing facility
General facilities and equipment required
Protocol for cleaning and sanitising equipment
Protocol for cleaning and sanitising food contact surfaces
Table olive processing
Table olive methods and styles
Raw olives used for table olive production
Common trade preparations of table olives
Specialty table olive products
Table olive styles
Common table olive methods and products
Primary processing specifications for table olives
Secondary table olive processing specifications
Finished table olive product specifications
Generic processing protocol for table olives
Acceptance of raw olives by processors
Correct storage of raw olives at the processing facility
Raw olives enter the table olive processing line
Placement of table olives into processing tanks
General methods for processing table olives
Microorganisms relevant in table olive processing
Manipulation of microbial activity
Fermentation and table olives
Anaerobic fermentation
Environmental considerations with table olive processing
Common methods of preservation for table olives
Packaging of table olive products
Pasteurisation of table olives
Alternative procedures
Processed table olives available in Australia
Wholesale table olive trade in Australia
Sale of loose table olives in Australia
Packaged table olive products in Australia
Processing olives with water (water-cured)
Features of anaerobic conditions
Green-ripe olives processed in brine
Turning colour olives processed in brine
Bruised/cracked olives processed in brine
Processing Kalamata-style table olives
Traditional short method for processing Kalamata-style olives
Long method for processing Kalamata-style olives
Processing olives with lye (sodium hydroxide)
Processing tips for treating green-ripe olives with lye
Step-by-step method for processing green-ripe olives with lye
Potential problems: stuck fermentations and corrective actions
Stuck fermentations and their management
Lye treated green-ripe olives without fermentation
Step-by-step procedure for lye treated green-ripe olives without fermentation
Step-by-step method for Olive de Nimes
Californian/Spanish-style black olives
Step-by-step method for preparing Californian/Spanish-style black olives
Lye treatment 1
Lye treatment 2
Lye treatment 3
Washing step
Colour enhancing step
Brining step
Further steps
Processing dried table olives (shrivelled olives)
Salt-dried olives
Step-by-step method for preparing salt-dried black olives
Heat-dried table olives
Step-by-step method for preparing sun/heat-dried olives
Ferrandina-style table olives
Step-by-step method for processing Ferrandina olives
Post-processing table olive operations (secondary processing)
Packing solutions for table olives
Secondary table olive processing
Adding vinegar and olive oil
Recipe for packing solutions with brine, vinegar and olive oil
Adding herbs, spices and marinades to table olives
Oil cured olives
Pitting and stuffing table olives
Step-by-step method for stuffing table olives
Olive pastes
Step-by-step method for making tapenade
Final table olive products
General qualities of packed table olives
Quality and safety evaluation of processed olives
Physical testing/evaluation of processed table olives
Physical quality criteria for table olives
Description of physical defects for processed table olives
Chemical quality criteria for table olives
Brine analysis
Clinistix™ and Diastix™ test strips
Clinitest™ tablets
High pressure liquid chromatography
Salt refractometer
Volhard titration method for sodium chloride estimation
Accurate pH measurements using a pH meter
Titration method with colour indicator (phenolphthalein)
Titration method with pH meter
Evaluation of table olive brines
Table olive flesh analysis
Carbohydrate and sugar levels in processed olive flesh
Mineral content of processed olive flesh
Microscopic examination of fermentation brines
Microbiological evaluation of table olives
Microbiological analysis of processed olive flesh and brines
Organoleptic evaluation of table olive products
Proposed IOOC organoleptic assessment of table olives
Table olive spoilage and deterioration
Malodorous deterioration of processed olives
Packaging and labelling olive products
Food-borne disease and table olives
Physical contaminants: foreign matter
Chemical contaminants
Microbial contaminants
Bibliography and additional reading
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Producing Table Olives

Producing Table Olives

Ratings: (0)|Views: 2,310 |Likes:
Published by Johnpaul Jones

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Published by: Johnpaul Jones on Jan 12, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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