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Power Plant Familiar is at Ion v- III

Power Plant Familiar is at Ion v- III

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Published by Siva Kumar Tutika

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Published by: Siva Kumar Tutika on Jan 12, 2011
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12/26/2013

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Page-1
TYPES AND WORKING PRINCIPLES
 
STEAM TURBINES
1.0
 
INTRODUCTION
 Steam turbine is a rotating machine which- CONVERTS HEAT ENERGY OFSTEAM TO MECHANICAL ENERGY.In India, steam turbines of different capacities, varying from 15 MW to 500MW, are employed in the field of thermal power generation. The design, material,auxiliary systems etc. vary widely from each other depending on the capacity andmanufacturer of the sets. Therefore the discussions in the chapters will follow thegeneral patterns applicable to almost all types of turbines, with reference to thespecific features of 21 0 MW steam turbines (both L.M.W. Soviet & KWU GermanDesigns)'and 500 MW (KWU) turbines which form the backbone of the thermalpower sector in India.
1.1 DEVELOPMENT OF STEAM TURBINE
Historically, first steam turbine was produced by Hero, a Greek Philosopher, in 120B.C. (Fig. 1. l.). As the fig. shows, k was a pure reaction turbine (explained at 1.4).In 1629, an Mlian. named Branc actually anticipated the boiler-steam turbinecombination that is a major source of power today. The concept, is illustrated in(Fig. 1.2).First practical steam turbine was introduced by Charles Parsons in 1884which was also of the reaction type. Just after five years, in 1889, Gustav De Lava]produced the first practical impulse turbine.
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Active development of steam turbine made ft the principal prime mover of generating stations by 1920. Most units used 14 kg/cm2 and 276
o
c steam andcapacity ranged from 5,000 'La 30,000 KW. By 1930 steam M2 conditions rose to48 kg/c and 398
o
c and by 1940 steam condition of 81 kg/cm' and 509
o
c wasachieved.After second world war (1 945), reheat. cycle was adopted widely andcapacity increased gradually. While turbines of 900 MW are in use in USSR, inIndia the largest capacity is 50&MW with steam condition of 179
Page-21.2
 
WORKING PRINCIPLES
When steam is allowed to expand through a narrow orifice, ft assumes kineticenergy at the expense of its enthalpy (heat emrgy). This kinetic energy of steam ischanged to mechanical (rotational) energy through the impact (impulse) 6r reactionof steam against the blades.It should be realized that the blade of the turbine obtains no motive forcefrom the static pressure of the steam or from any impact of the steam jet. Theblades are designed in such a way, that steam will glide on and off the blade withoutany tendenc to strike it.As the steam moves over the blades, its direction is continuously changingand centrifugal pressure exerted as the result is normal to the blade surface at allpoints. The total motive force acting on the blade is thus the resultant of all thecentrifugal forces plus the change of momentum. (Fig. 1.3). This causes therotational motion of the blades.
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FIG. 1.4 SIMPLE IMPULSE TURBINEPage-3
 
1.3 TURBINE TYPES
Basically there are two broad classifications of steam turbines:
i) Impulse:
In Impulse turbine(Fig.1.4),the steam is expanded (i.e. pressure isreduced) in fixed nozzles. The high-velocity steam issuing from the nozzles does work on the moving blades which causes the shaft to rotate, The essential feature of an impulseturbine is that all the pressure drops occur in the nozzles only, and there is no pressuredrop over the moving blades.
ii) Impulse-reaction :
In this type, pressure is reduced in both fixed and movingblades. Both fixed and moving blades act like nozzles and are of same shape. Work isdone by the impulse affect due to the reversal of direction of the high velocity steam plusa reaction effect due to the expansion of steam through the moving blades. This turbineis commonly called a reaction turbine and is shown below in (Fig.1.5).
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