The high growth rate of human population has put pressure on land in almost all aspects of human necessities, both direct or indirect manner. As a result of the population pressure, the areas of degraded land from time to time is increasing inlarge amount.
Based on their causal factors, land degradation is categorized into two groups.First, quantitative land degradation which occur when the damage is caused by themovement of soil layer into lower location. This is also called erosive degradation.Second, is the degradation not caused by movement but due to repeated changesespecially chemical in nature where toxic compound such as heavy metals and other toxic materials that accumulate in the soil. This consequently causes imbalances in thenutrient quality of the soil. This latter case is usually referred to as non erosivedegradation.
Many soil microbes play important roles in the process of degraded land remediation. From their impact on the fate of the pollutants in soil, these microbes canbe classified into two categories. Firstly, a group of soil microbes that is able to utilizethe pollutants in the form of carbon for energy source for their growth and life. Thesemicrobes belong to the bioremediation agent category. They affect in reducing thecontaminant compounds in soil directly. The second is a group of soil microbes that are able to decrease soil pollutant indirectly through plant growth processes. Microbes promote the growth of plants that are able to accumulate or absorb the soil pollutants.Soil decontamination utilizing plants activities are called phyto-remediation. Soil microbes thus support phyto-remediation, due to their ability to accelerate soil decontamination.Land remediation is determined by soil factors such as pH, temperature, soil organic matter, water holding capacity, aeration and nutrient availability. Management of these factors will encourage the success of these activities.
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