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Jarava--a new high-yielding and pest-resistant rice variety for coastal saline areas

Jarava--a new high-yielding and pest-resistant rice variety for coastal saline areas

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Published by Grace Cañas
2010 GenRes_SR#664
2010 GenRes_SR#664

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Grace Cañas on Jan 13, 2011
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05/21/2012

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Genetic resources
2010
 
International Rice Research Notes
(0117-4185) 
 
1
Jarava–a new high-yielding and pest-resistantrice variety for coastal saline areas
T. Ram, N.D. Majumder, and B. Mishra, Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar,Hyderabad 500030, India
 
Coastal as well as inland soil salinity and alkalinity are the predominantabiotic stresses that limit rice production on about 8.5 million ha in India. Thevery few varieties developed for the salt-affected areas came predominantlyfrom donors such as Pokkali, SR26B, Nonasail, Getu, Dasal, Chittivirippu, andDamodar, which have moderate tolerance. So far, adoption of varietiesdeveloped for the coastal saline areas is very limited (Akbar et al 1986) because of the occurrence of major biotic and other mineral stresses associatedwith salinity in these areas. We therefore initiated a breeding program for theintrogression of multiple genes of agronomic importance from wild rice
Oryza rufipogon 
. One accession of 
O. rufipogon 
(WR107), which was tolerantof salinity at ECe 9–10 dS m
-1
, immune to blast, and resistant to bacterial leaf  blight (BB), brown planthopper (BPH), and whitebacked planthopper(WBPH), was crossed with a high-yielding line, B32-Sel-4, which wassusceptible to salinity, blast, BB, BPH, and WBPH. The F
1
was crossed withanother susceptible line, B29-6 (late duration). Half of the F
2
of the three-waycross were screened for blast resistance and half for salinity tolerance (ECe 9–10 dS m
-1
) and the 20 tolerant/resistant plants from each screening wereintermated. A second cycle of intermating was also done in the F
2
of the firstintermated population. Thereafter, pedigree selection was followed.In the F
5
generation, 42 introgression lines were screened for salttolerance and resistance to blast, BPH, WBPH, and BB. Six promising linestolerant of salt and resistant to blast, BB, and BPH were evaluated in the AllIndia Coordinated Rice Improvement Program (AICRIP) trials for yield undersaline conditions. They were likewise screened for resistance to major pestsand diseases.The introgression line B90-15 with tolerance/resistance to salinity, blast, BB, and BPH was evaluated in AICRIP trials from 1999 to 2001 and in2004 as IET15420 in coastal saline areas under low salinity (Andhra Pradesh),moderate salinity (West Bengal and Maharashtra), high salinity (Andamans),and alkalinity with saline water irrigation with 1.7 dS m
-1
and RSC 9.0 meq L
-1
 (Pondicherry). It was also screened for major disease and insect pestresistance. In the four years of testing, with newly released varieties CST7-1and CSR27 as salt-tolerant checks and Jaya as a yield check, the average yieldof IET15420 under moderate salinity conditions of West Bengal and
 
 
Genetic resources
2010
 
International Rice Research Notes
(0117-4185) 
 
2Maharashtra was 4.8 and 5.7 t ha
-1
, respectively, with significantly higheryield than all the checks. In Andhra Pradesh and Pondicherry, where salinitywas associated with alkalinity, it yielded 4.1 and 3.4 t ha
-1
, respectively. Underhigh-salinity conditions (ECe 9.2–10 dS m
-1
) in the Andamans, the averageyield of IET15420 was 2.8 t ha
-1
(Table 1). The yield advantage of IET15420over the check varieties is shown in Table 1. Since both indica parents (B32-Sel-4 and B29-6) were susceptible to salinity and other abiotic stresses, thetolerance in IET15420 indicated that the genes for salinity and other abioticstress resistance in IET15420 were introgressed from
O. rufipogon 
.
Table 1. Mean yield performance of Jarava (IET15420) over locations and years indifferent states.
 
Yield (t ha
-1
) Yield superiority (%) of IET15420 over checksState Trials(no.)IET15420 CST7-1 CSR27 Jaya CST7-1 CSR27 JayaSoil pH ECe(dS m
 –1
)West Bengal 7 4.8 3.6 (5)
3.0 (6) 2.8 (7) 33.3 60.0 71.4 6.0–7.6 6.4–7.5AndhraPradesh3 4.1 3.6 (2) 3.2 (2) 3.1 (2) 13.9 28.1 32.3 7.7–8.6 3.2–4.7Pondicherry 3 3.4 2.5 (3) 2.0 (3) 2.3 (3) 36.0 70.0 47.8 8.2–8.6 1.6–1.8Andamans 2 2.8 1.2 (3) 1.5 (3) 1.7 (3) 133.3 86.7 64.7 5.7–6.2 9.2–10Maharashtra 3 5.7 5.2 (3) 4.0 (3) 4.2 (3) 10.0 42.5 39.0 7.5–7.9 4.5–5.6Weighted mean 4.4 3.4 2.9 2.3 29.4 51.7 91.3
Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of times IET15420 was statistically superior to corresponding checks at the 5%significance level.
IET15420 (B90-15) was screened against different lineages of blast and bacterial leaf blight (BLB), sheath blight (ShB), rice tungro disease (RTD),BPH, WBPH, green leafhoppers (GLH), leaffolders, and a mixed population of planthoppers under artificial and natural infection/infestation conditions(AICRIP 1999-2001, 2004). Over the years and locations, IET15420 showed broad-spectrum resistance to blast, neck blast, leaffolders, and planthoppersand moderate resistance to BLB, ShB, RTD, BPH, WBPH, and GLH (Table 2).Both the indica parents and introgression lines were also screened for blast,BB, BPH, and WBPH in a glasshouse under artificial infestation. The resultsshowed that the indica parents were susceptible to the diseases and insectpests and IET15420 was resistant, indicating that genes for multiple pest anddisease resistance in IET15420 were also introgressed from
O. rufipogon 
.
 
 
Genetic resources
2010
 
International Rice Research Notes
(0117-4185) 
 
3
Table 2. Average reaction over the years of IET15420 to major pests and diseases athot-spot locations.
 
Score in the 0-9 SES scale
 Disease andinsect pest
 Trials(no.) Jarava(IET15420)IR64R: BlastHR12S: BlastTN (1)S: BLB,RTD, ShBAjayaR: BLBVikramaryaR: RTDSwarnadhanMR: ShBLeaf blast 57 2.5 3.5 7.3 – 
– Neck blast 5 2.4 4.3 7.5 – BLB 47 4.9 7.7 4.1 7.1 6.8ShB 32 5.0 7.1 6.1 5.7 5.5RTD 7 4.0 7.9 5.3 2.0 4.3BPH 16 4.0 – 9.0 – – – WBPH 14 4.0 9.0 – – – GLH 4.5 – 9.0 – Mixedpopulation of planthoppers – 2.1 9.0 – Leaffolders 1.7 7.0 – 
BLB = bacterial leaf blight, RTD = rice tungro disease, ShB = sheath blight,BPH = brown planthopper, WBPH = whitebacked planthopper, GLH = green leafhopper.
Score 0–3 = resistant, 3.1–5 = moderately resistant, 5.1–9 = susceptible.
 – = not tested.
In terms of quality characteristics, IET15420 had short, bold grains,58.4% head rice recovery, intermediate amylose content and alkali spreadingvalue, and soft gel consistency (Table 3). It had better cooking quality thanCST7-1 and CSR27, which have been released for coastal saline areas.Considering its yield superiority over the check varieties in moderately andhighly saline and sodic conditions, its multiple resistance to/tolerance formajor biotic stresses, and its better cooking quality, introgression lineIET15420 was officially released as variety Jarava for cultivation in the coastalsaline areas of West Bengal, Pondicherry, and the Andamans in 2006. Jarava isa prime example of a variety into which multiple genes of agronomicimportance were introgressed from
O. rufipogon 
.
Table 3. Quality characteristics of IET15420 (Jarava) and check varieties.
 
VarietiesQuality characteristic Jarava CST7-1 CSR27 JayaMilling (%) 65.8 ± 2.2 68.5 ± 1.2 70.2 ± 0.95 71.9 ± 0.3Head rice recovery (%) 58.4 ± 1.7 54.6 ± 6.2 51.8 ± 4.1 64.4 ± 1.6Kernel length (L) (mm) 5.6 ± 0.08 5.6 ± 0.11 6.2 ± 0.12 5.7 ± 0.06Kernel breadth (B) (mm) 2.4 ± 0.02 2.43 ± 0.01 2.2 ± 0.02 2.5 ± 0.11L/B 2.3 ± 0.05 2.3 ± 0.04 2.8 ± 0.03 2.3 ± 0.02Grain type
SB SB LB SB

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