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Report On Digital Image Processing

Report On Digital Image Processing

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Published by: Nandagopal Sivakumar on Jan 13, 2011
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12/07/2013

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APaper PresentationOn
 
DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING
 
Abstract
:Over the past dozen years forensic and medical applications of technologyfirst developed to record and transmit pictures from outer space havechanged the way we see things here on earth, including Old Englishmanuscripts. With their talents combined, an electronic camera designedfor use with documents and a
digital
computer can now frequentlyenhance the legibility of formerly obscure or even invisible texts. Thecomputer first converts the analogue
image
, in this case a videotape, to a
digital
 
image
by dividing it into a microscopic grid and numbering each part by its relative brightness. Specific
image
 
processing
programs canthen radically improve the contrast, for example by stretching the range of  brightness throughout the grid from black to white, emphasizing edges,and suppressing random background noise that comes from the equipmentrather than the document. Applied to some of the most illegible passagesin the
 Beowulf 
manuscript, this new technology indeed shows us somethings we had not seen before and forces us to reconsider some establishedreadings.
 
Introduction to Digital Image Processing:
 
Vision allows humans to perceive and understand the world surrounding us.
Computer vision aims to duplicate the effect of human vision by electronically perceiving and understanding an image.
Giving computers the ability to see is not an easy task - we live in a threedimensional (3D) world, and when computers try to analyze objects in 3D space,available visual sensors (e.g., TV cameras) usually give two dimensional (2D)images, and this projection to a lower number of dimensions incurs an enormousloss of information.
In order to simplify the task of computer vision understanding, two levels areusually distinguished;
low-level
image processing and
high level
imageunderstanding.
Usually very little knowledge about the content of images
High level processing is based on knowledge, goals, and plans of how to achievethose goals. Artificial intelligence (AI) methods are used in many cases. High-level computer vision tries to imitate human cognition and the ability to makedecisions according to the information contained in the image.
 
This course deals almost exclusively with low-level image processing, high levelin which is a continuation of this course.
Age processing is discussed in the course
Image Analysis and Understanding
,which is a continuation of this course.
History:
Many of the techniques of digital image processing, or digital picture processing as it wasoften called, were developed in the1960sat theJet Propulsion Laboratory,MIT, Bell  Labs, University of Maryland,and few other places, with application tosatellite imagery, wire photo standards conversion,medical imaging,videophone,character recognition, and photo enhancement. But the cost of processing was fairly high with the computingequipment of that era. In the1970s, digital image processing proliferated, when cheaper computers Creating a film or electronic image of any picture or paper form. It isaccomplished by scanning or photographing an object and turning it into a matrix of dots(bitmap), the meaning of which is unknown to the computer, only to the human viewer.Scanned images of text may be encoded into computer data (ASCII or EBCDIC) with page recognition software (OCR).
Basic Concepts:
A signal is a function depending on some variable with physical meaning.
Signals can be
o
One-dimensional (e.g., dependent on time),
o
Two-dimensional (e.g., images dependent on two co-ordinates in a plane),
o
Three-dimensional (e.g., describing an object in space),
o
Or higher dimensional.

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