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Table Of Contents

1.1 Elements of a water quality monitoring programme
1.2 Monitoring for management
2.1.2 Lakes and reservoirs
2.1.3 Rivers
2.2 Characteristics of groundwater
2.3 Natural processes affecting water quality
2.4 Water use and water quality deterioration
2.5 Water and human health
2.6 Source literature and further reading
3.1 Purpose of monitoring
3.2 The need for information for management
3.3 Objectives of water quality monitoring
3.4 Preliminary surveys
3.5.1 Conditions and processes
3.5.2 Meteorological and hydrological information
3.5.3 Water bodies
3.5.4 Water uses
3.6 Selecting sampling sites
3.7.2 Lakes and reservoirs
3.7.3 Groundwater
3.8 Monitoring media and variables
3.9 Frequency and timing of sampling
3.10 Source literature and further reading
4.1 Laboratory facilities
4.2 Transport
4.3.1 Programme manager
4.3.2 Field staff
4.3.3 Laboratory staff
4.3.4 Quality assurance officer
5.1 Sample containers
5.2.1 Sampling surface waters
5.2.2 Sampling groundwater
5.3.1 Dissolved oxygen sampler
5.3.2 Depth sampler
5.3.3 Multi-purpose sampler
5.4.1 Guidelines
5.4.2 Procedures
5.5 Recording field observations
5.6 Sample preservation
5.7 Transportation and storage of samples
5.8 Reception of samples by the laboratory
5.9 Safety during field work
6.1 Temperature
6.2 Transparency
6.3.1 Measurement of pH using colour indicators
6.3.2 Measurement of pH using a pH meter
6.4 Conductivity (or specific conductance)
6.5.1 Winkler method
6.5.2 Electrometric method
6.6 Thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms
6.7 Quality assurance in the field
6.8 Source literature and further reading
7.1 Preparation and use of chemical reagents
7.2 Alkalinity
7.3 Aluminium
7.4 Biochemical oxygen demand
7.5 Chemical oxygen demand
7.6 Boron
7.7 Calcium
7.8.1 Silver nitrate method
7.8.2 Mercuric nitrate method
7.9 Chlorophyll a
7.10.1 Selective ion electrode method
7.10.2 SPADNS method
7.10.3 Fluoride distillation
7.11 Iron
7.12.1 Titrimetric method
7.12.2 Magnesium hardness method
7.13 Manganese
7.15.1 Titrimetric determination following mineralisation and distillation
7.15.2 Spectrophotometric method after mineralisation
7.16.1 Devarda’s alloy method (reduction to ammonia)
7.16.2 Cadmium reduction method
7.18 Phosphorus
7.19 Potassium
7.20 Selenium
7.22 Sodium
7.23.1 Titrimetric method
7.23.2 Gravimetric method with drying of residue
7.24 Total dissolved solids
7.25 Total suspended solids
7.26 Source literature and further reading
8.1 Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS)
8.2 Gas chromatography
8.3 Flame photometry
8.4.1 Surface waters and water intended for human consumption or domestic use
8.4.2 Seawater or water with a high content of dissolved salts
8.4.3 Wastewater and surface water with a high TOC content
8.5 Source literature and further reading
9.1.1 Components of quality assurance
9.1.2 Implementation of quality assurance
9.1.3 Checking compliance
9.2.1 Choice of analytical method
9.2.2 Validity checking
9.2.3 Precision and accuracy checks
9.2.4 Use of control charts
9.2.5 Summary of an internal quality control programme
9.2.6 Remedial action
9.3 External quality control
9.4 Source literature and further reading
10.1 Characteristics of indicator organisms
10.2 Selecting a bacteriological analytical technique
10.3.1 Culture media and buffered dilution water
10.3.2 Procedure
10.4.2 Procedure
10.4.3 Confirmatory tests
10.5.1 Laboratory equipment
10.5.2 Glassware and plasticware
10.5.3 Media
10.5.5 Precision testing
10.6 Source literature and further reading
11.1.1 Selection of techniques
11.1.2 Choice of organisms
11.2.1 Indicator organisms
11.2.2 Community structure
11.2.3 Sampling methods and sample handling
11.2.4 Field data and habitat assessment
11.4 Physiological techniques
11.5.1 Daphnia magna immobilisation test
11.5.2 Early warning methods
11.9 Source literature and further reading
12.1 Rivers
12.2.1 Sampling from tributaries and outflowing streams
12.2.2 Sampling from a lake or reservoir
12.3 Mass flux computation
12.4 Groundwater
12.5 Source literature and further reading
13.1 Types of sediment transport
13.2.1 Particle size
13.2.2 Composition of sediment
13.2.3 Hysteresis effects
13.3 Sampling for sediment
13.4.1 Laboratory procedures for measuring sediment concentration
13.4.2 Estimating suspended sediment concentration
13.5.1 Sample collection and preparation
13.6 Source literature and further reading
14.1 Quality assurance of data
14.2 Data handling and management
14.3.1 General considerations
14.3.2 Outline of statistical techniques
14.4 Use of data and the need for supporting information
14.6.1 Types of report
14.6.2 Structuring a report
14.7 Recommendations
14.8 Source literature and further reading
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Published by Rich Quick

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Published by: Rich Quick on Jan 13, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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