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Published by: akshay_punde on Jan 14, 2011
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`SOLAR PV PUMPING
2009
Introduction
Solar PV pumping constitutes what is perhaps the most relevant of all PV applicationsfor agrarian India. The per capital energy consumption of any country is an index of theeconomic well being of the country. In India 40-50% of the energy generated isconsumed in the agricultural sector of water pumping. However, conventional source of energy are becoming costlier, scarcer and generate a lot of green house gasesparticularly CO
2
. What India needs today is an energy source that is decentralised,modular, efficient, sustainable, pollution free and capable of straight power delivery. (i.e.Generation near the point of views). It is in this context solar photovoltaics assume itsimportance as an energy source and among all these applications photovoltaics, Solar water pumping is the most relevant for India. In India there are about 15 million pumpsets in the agriculture sector and there i.e. scope for installing atleast 7 million more.There is a strong case in India to go in for solar power water pumping in a very big way.Other important applications of photovoltaics would be in the areas of lighting, healthcare, education, entertainment, industry and so on.
Applications of Photovoltaics:
Important applications of photovoltaics. In the context of India care brieflydescribed below:
Consumer electronics:
such as in calculators, TV etc.
a)
Communications:
PV is ideally suited for powering remote, microwave,towers, battery charging applications specially in radio sets etc.
 b)
Off Grid Applications:
These include lighting, motor pumping, health care(Storing Vaccines), education, entertainment( TV sets, radio sets etc)
c)
Grid connected applications:
ie feeding, PV power to the grid through asuitable inverter.
d)
Hybrid Systems:
such as PV-wend, PV and mains, PV & biomass etc.
e)
Generation power:
for peak shaving applications or for strengthening thegrid. Power from PV as centralised generating source.
B.N.CO.E, PUSADPage
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`SOLAR PV PUMPING
2009
f)
Industrial applications:
such as cathodic protection etc.In this paper water pumping application for Irrigation will be discussed. Water pumping applications are also pumping applications are also relevant for village water supply and life stock watering.
Justification for solar PV pumping
Problems with the grid-powered pumps.
The problems with grid powered pumpingsystems are profiled below [1]:a)Demand for electrical energy far outstrips supply. The gap is only widening.b)It is proving to be increasingly difficult for the Government to continue subsidizingrising costs of generation, T & D (transmission and distribution) losses, pilferageetc. ( To deliver 3600 kWh to the farmer’s pump-set, 7000 kWh are required tobe generated,assuming a diversity factor of 2). The loss of revenue to the Government iscolossal.c)The capital cost to the Government to provide an electrical connection for asingle pump set of 3 HP capacity (sufficient for 5 acres) is estimated at Rs. 1.37lakhs by Andhra Pradesh Transco (2002 figures).d)Electrical energy generation costs and tariffs are progressively increasing. Themarginal-farmer is not in a position to pay such high tariffs.e)f)Grid power is unreliable and of poor quality often leading to motor burn outs attail end areas.g)In a coal-fired thermal generating station, 1 kWh of electrical energy generatedresults in 1.6 to 2 kg of carbon dioxide emission. On a conservative basis, 7000or more kWh of energy are required to be generated in a year to energise a 3 HP
B.N.CO.E, PUSADPage
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`SOLAR PV PUMPING
2009
pump set. This translates to 11.2 tonnes of carbon dioxide emission per gridpowered pump-set per year.
Fact file’ relating to the agricultural sector.
Agriculture is the largest user of water accounting for about one-third of the total power use in India [2]. Out of a total water consumption of 552 bcm (2000 figures), theapportionment among various sectors is Agriculture (83%), Industry (4%), Municipal(5%) and others (8%). The total energy consumed in the same year was 395 b kWh(Agriculture – 27%, Industry – 40%, Domestic – 22% and others – 11%). India hasabout 15 million grid powered pump sets and close to 7 million diesel engine pump sets.In order to deliver 1 kWh of electric energy at the pump end, the input to the Utilitythermal generating station is generally of the order of 24.7 kWh. (Fig 1).
Input 24.7 kWh7.42 kWh 6.68 kWh 6.15 kWh
B.N.CO.E, PUSADPage
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Generation thermal70% lossDistribution35% lossTransmission8% lossGeneration Electrical10% loss

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