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Factors that hinder the implementation of global environmental laws

Factors that hinder the implementation of global environmental laws

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Published by: Al on Jan 16, 2011
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 FACTORS THAT HINDER THE IMPLEMENTATION OF GLOBALENVIRONMENTAL LAWSSUBMITTED BY:ANGELYN HASSANALEXANDRA MONDARESSUBMITTED TO:MS. ROCHELL ASIS
 
ABSTRACT
The ultimate aim of education is shaping behavior, a quotation found in the pages 8 -12 of TheJournal of Environmental Education which was written by H.R. Hungerford and T. Volk (1990), influencedthe researchers to provide a context study.The study was conducted to determine the factors that hinder the implementation of environmental laws and to provide awareness and information to the readers. The information wasgathered through internet search engines and articles discussing environmental issues. In line with this,researchers provided the known and proposed solutions for this issue.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The researchers sought to answer the following:1.
 
W
hat are the environmental laws implemented worldwide?2.
 
W
hat are the possible factors that hinder the worldwide implementation of environmentallaws?3.
 
W
hat are the known and proposed solutions to the problems encountered in implementingthese laws?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The main purposes of this study are to unfold the significance of implementing environmentallaws, to provide awareness to the readers and context discussing the problems in implementingenvironmental laws and its possible solutions and to promote sustainable development.Moreover, researchers aim to know the possible causes and effects of the problemsencountered in implementing laws and empower the understanding, perspectives and responsibilities of the readers towards environmental issues worldwide.
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
In a related article, Environmentalism properly understood is political; much of the movementhas focused on asserting particular rights to meaningful work, clean air and water, healthy land andfood, and a right to enjoy pristine areas of wilderness (Berry 1986; Berry 1990; Commoner 1990; Faber1998; Shiva 1989, 2000). Since the 1960s, the environmental movement has produced significantenvironmental legislation and policy by challenging two fundamental tenets of neoliberalism. First, theenvironmental movement on the nation-state level has challenged the unimpeded exploitation of environmental resources in the process of capital accumulation by requiring corporations to spendbillions of dollars cleaning up the air, water, and land (Chambliss 1993). Second, the environmentalmovement on the nation-state level has provoked a clash between the expansionary logic of property
 
rights and personal rights by promulgating legislation that has required the protection of public air,water and land, and non-human life (Bowles and Gintis 1987).In addition, Ansel Adams claimed that at the enforcement stage, countries are unwilling toenforce laws precisely because of maintaining the edge in competition. Capitalism and environmentalprotection are joined in an awkward legal unification which leads to ineffective environmentalprotection and poor realization of equity and medium of international direction- the law is inherentlybias towards economic interests and thus need to be re-formulated in order to give effective protectionfor our planet. "It is horrifying that we have to fight our own government to save the environment."Furthermore, Stewart Barr said, People are not aware of whats happening today. Theybelieved that its the natures way without even noticing the abnormalities happening in the process.For 200 years we haven conquering nature, now we're beating it to death." Tom McMillan said,Greenhouse Trap 1990.
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS
y
 
Clean Air ActThe Clean Air Act (CAA) is the comprehensive federal law that regulates air emissions from stationaryand mobile sources. Among other things, this law establishes National Ambient Air Quality Standards(NAAQS) to protect public health and public welfare and to regulate emissions of hazardous airpollutants.
y
 
Clean
W
ater ActThe Clean
W
ater Act (C
W
A) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants intothe waters of the United States and regulating quality standards for surface waters. The basis of theC
W
A was enacted in 1948 and was called the Federal
W
ater Pollution Control Act, but the Act wassignificantly reorganized and expanded in 1972. "Clean
W
ater Act" became the Act's common namewith amendments in 1977.
y
 
Energy Policy ActThe Energy Policy Act (EPA) addresses energy production in the United States, including: (1)energy efficiency; (2) renewable energy; (3) oil and gas; (4) coal; (5) Tribal energy; (6) nuclear mattersand security; (7) vehicles and motor fuels, including ethanol; (8) hydrogen; (9) electricity; (10) energy taxincentives; (11) hydropower and geothermal energy; and (12) climate change technology. For example,the Act provides loan guarantees for entities that develop or use innovative technologies that avoid theby-production of greenhouse gases.
y
 
United States Environmental PolicyThe environmental policy of the United States is federal governmental action to regulate activities thathave an environmental impact in the United States. The goal of environmental policy is to protect theenvironment for future generations while interfering as little as possible with the efficiency of 

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