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FreeBSD Handbook A3

FreeBSD Handbook A3

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The FreeBSD Documentation Project
Copyright © 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 The FreeBSD DocumentationProjectWelcome to FreeBSD! This handbook covers the installation and day to day use of 
FreeBSD 7.3-RELEASE 
and
FreeBSD 8.1-RELEASE 
. Thismanual is a
work in progress
and is the work of many individuals. As such, some sections may become dated and require updating. If you areinterested in helping out with this project, send email to theFreeBSD documentation project mailing list. The latest version of this document isalways available from theFreeBSD web site(previous versions of this handbook can be obtained fromhttp://docs.FreeBSD.org/doc/). It may also be downloaded in a variety of formats and compression options from theFreeBSD FTP server or one of the numerousmirror sites. If you would prefer  to have a hard copy of the handbook, you can purchase one at theFreeBSD Mall. You may also want tosearch the handbook .
EDISTRIBUTION
 
AND
 
USE
 
IN
 
SOURCE
(SGML D
OC
B
OOK 
)
AND
'
COMPILED
'
FORMS
(SGML, HTML, PDF, P
OST
S
CRIPT
, RTF
AND
 
SO
 
FORTH
)
WITH
 
OR 
 
WITHOUT
 
MODIFICATION
,
AREPERMITTED
 
PROVIDED
 
THAT
 
THE
 
FOLLOWING
 
CONDITIONS
 
ARE
 
MET
:
EDISTRIBUTIONS
 
OF
 
SOURCE
 
CODE
(SGML D
OC
B
OOK 
)
MUST
 
RETAIN
 
THE
 
ABOVE
 
COPYRIGHT
 
 NOTICE
,
THIS
 
LIST
 
OF
 
CONDITIONS
 
AND
 
THE
 
FOLLOWING
 
DISCLAIMER AS
 
THE
 
FIRST
 
LINES
 
OF
 
THIS
 
FILE
 
UNMODIFIED
.1.
EDISTRIBUTIONS
 
IN
 
COMPILED
 
FORM
(
TRANSFORMED
 
TO
 
OTHER 
DTD
S
,
CONVERTED
 
TO
PDF, P
OST
S
CRIPT
, RTF
AND
 
OTHER 
 
FORMATS
)
MUST
 
REPRODUCE
 
THEABOVE
 
COPYRIGHT
 
 NOTICE
,
THIS
 
LIST
 
OF
 
CONDITIONS
 
AND
 
THE
 
FOLLOWING
 
DISCLAIMER 
 
IN
 
THE
 
DOCUMENTATION
 
AND
/
OR 
 
OTHER 
 
MATERIALS
 
PROVIDED
 
WITH
 
THEDISTRIBUTION
.2.
 I 
 MPORTANT 
:
THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIEDWARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULARPURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF  LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
F
REE
BSD
IS
 
A
 
REGISTERED
 
TRADEMARK 
 
OF
 
THE
F
REE
BSD F
OUNDATION
.3C
OM
 
AND
H
OME
C
ONNECT
 
ARE
 
REGISTERED
 
TRADEMARKS
 
OF
3C
OM
C
ORPORATION
.3
WARE
 
AND
E
SCALADE
 
ARE
 
REGISTERED
 
TRADEMARKS
 
OF
3
WARE
I
 NC
.ARM
IS
 
A
 
REGISTERED
 
TRADEMARK 
 
OF
ARM L
IMITED
.A
DAPTEC
 
IS
 
A
 
REGISTERED
 
TRADEMARK 
 
OF
A
DAPTEC
, I
 NC
.A
DOBE
, A
CROBAT
, A
CROBAT
EADER 
,
AND
P
OST
S
CRIPT
 
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REGISTERED
 
TRADEMARKS
 
OR 
 
TRADEMARKS
 
OF
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DOBE
S
YSTEMS
I
 NCORPORATED
 
IN
 
THE
U
 NITED
S
TATES
 
AND
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OR OTHER 
 
COUNTRIES
.A
PPLE
, A
IR 
P
ORT
, F
IRE
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, M
AC
, M
ACINTOSH
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AC
OS, Q
UICKTIME
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TATES
 
AND
 
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.C
OREL
 
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W
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P
ERFECT
 
ARE
 
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OR 
 
REGISTERED
 
TRADEMARKS
 
OF
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OREL
C
ORPORATION
 
AND
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SUBSIDIARIES
 
IN
C
ANADA
,
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U
 NITED
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TATES
 
AND
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OTHER COUNTRIES
.S
OUND
B
LASTER 
 
IS
 
A
 
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OF
C
REATIVE
T
ECHNOLOGY
L
TD
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IN
 
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U
 NITED
S
TATES
 
AND
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OTHER 
 
COUNTRIES
.CVS
UP
 
IS
 
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TRADEMARK 
 
OF
J
OHN
D. P
OLSTRA
.H
EIDELBERG
, H
ELVETICA
, P
ALATINO
,
AND
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REGISTERED
 
TRADEMARKS
 
OR 
 
TRADEMARKS
 
OF
H
EIDELBERGER 
D
RUCKMASCHINEN
AG
IN
 
THE
U.S.
AND
 
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.IBM, AIX, E
THER 
J
ET
, N
ETFINITY
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OWER 
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AD
 
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,
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AND
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IN
 
THE
U
 NITED
S
TATES
 
AND
 
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 NTUIT
 
AND
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AND
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I
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.,
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,
IN
 
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U
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S
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INUX
 
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OF
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T
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.LSI L
OGIC
, A
CCELE
RAID,
E
X
TREME
RAID, M
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M
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ARE
 
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OR 
 
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TRADEMARKS
 
OF
LSI L
OGIC
C
ORP
.M-S
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AND
D
ISK 
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C
HIP
 
ARE
 
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TRADEMARKS
 
OF
M-S
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LASH
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TD
.M
ACROMEDIA
, F
LASH
,
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S
HOCKWAVE
 
ARE
 
TRADEMARKS
 
OR 
 
REGISTERED
 
TRADEMARKS
 
OF
M
ACROMEDIA
, I
 NC
.
IN
 
THE
U
 NITED
S
TATES
 
AND
/
OR 
 
OTHER 
 
COUNTRIES
.M
ICROSOFT
, I
 NTELLI
M
OUSE
, MS-DOS, O
UTLOOK 
, W
INDOWS
, W
INDOWS
M
EDIA
 
AND
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INDOWS
NT
ARE
 
EITHER 
 
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TRADEMARKS
 
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M
ICROSOFT
C
ORPORATION
 
IN
 
THE
U
 NITED
S
TATES
 
AND
/
OR 
 
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COUNTRIES
. N
ETSCAPE
 
AND
 
THE
N
ETSCAPE
N
AVIGATOR 
 
ARE
 
REGISTERED
 
TRADEMARKS
 
OF
N
ETSCAPE
C
OMMUNICATIONS
C
ORPORATION
 
IN
 
THE
U.S.
AND
 
OTHER 
 
COUNTRIES
.G
ATE
D
AND
N
EXT
H
OP
 
ARE
 
REGISTERED
 
AND
 
UNREGISTERED
 
TRADEMARKS
 
OF
N
EXT
H
OP
 
IN
 
THE
U.S.
AND
 
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COUNTRIES
.M
OTIF
, OSF/1,
AND
UNIX
ARE
 
REGISTERED
 
TRADEMARKS
 
AND
IT D
IAL
T
ONE
 
AND
T
HE
O
PEN
G
ROUP
 
ARE
 
TRADEMARKS
 
OF
T
HE
O
PEN
G
ROUP
 
IN
 
THE
U
 NITED
S
TATES
 
AND
 
OTHER COUNTRIES
.O
RACLE
 
IS
 
A
 
REGISTERED
 
TRADEMARK 
 
OF
O
RACLE
C
ORPORATION
.P
OWER 
Q
UEST
 
AND
P
ARTITION
M
AGIC
 
ARE
 
REGISTERED
 
TRADEMARKS
 
OF
P
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Q
UEST
C
ORPORATION
 
IN
 
THE
U
 NITED
S
TATES
 
AND
/
OR 
 
OTHER 
 
COUNTRIES
.
EAL
 N
ETWORKS
, R 
EAL
P
LAYER 
,
AND
EAL
A
UDIO
 
ARE
 
THE
 
REGISTERED
 
TRADEMARKS
 
OF
EAL
 N
ETWORKS
, I
 NC
.
ED
H
AT
, RPM,
ARE
 
TRADEMARKS
 
OR 
 
REGISTERED
 
TRADEMARKS
 
OF
ED
H
AT
, I
 NC
.
IN
 
THE
U
 NITED
S
TATES
 
AND
 
OTHER 
 
COUNTRIES
.SAP, R/3,
AND
 
MY
SAP
ARE
 
TRADEMARKS
 
OR 
 
REGISTERED
 
TRADEMARKS
 
OF
SAP AG
IN
G
ERMANY
 
AND
 
IN
 
SEVERAL
 
OTHER 
 
COUNTRIES
 
ALL
 
OVER 
 
THE
 
WORLD
.S
UN
, S
UN
M
ICROSYSTEMS
, J
AVA
, J
AVA
V
IRTUAL
M
ACHINE
, J
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S
ERVER 
P
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ETRA
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JDK, S
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 NTERPRISE
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AND
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OR 
 
REGISTERED
 
TRADEMARKS
 
OF
S
UN
M
ICROSYSTEMS
, I
 NC
.
IN
 
THE
U
 NITED
S
TATES
 
AND
 
OTHER 
 
COUNTRIES
.S
YMANTEC
 
AND
G
HOST
 
ARE
 
REGISTERED
 
TRADEMARKS
 
OF
S
YMANTEC
C
ORPORATION
 
IN
 
THE
U
 NITED
S
TATES
 
AND
 
OTHER 
 
COUNTRIES
.MATLAB
IS
 
A
 
REGISTERED
 
TRADEMARK 
 
OF
T
HE
M
ATH
W
ORKS
, I
 NC
.
FreeBSD Handbookhttp://www.freebsd.org/doc/handbook/book.html1 of 8031/16/2011 10:27 AM
 
S
PEED
T
OUCH
 
IS
 
A
 
TRADEMARK 
 
OF
T
HOMSON
.U.S. R 
OBOTICS
 
AND
S
PORTSTER 
 
ARE
 
REGISTERED
 
TRADEMARKS
 
OF
U.S. R 
OBOTICS
C
ORPORATION
.VM
WARE
 
IS
 
A
 
TRADEMARK 
 
OF
VM
WARE
, I
 NC
.W
ATERLOO
M
APLE
 
AND
M
APLE
 
ARE
 
TRADEMARKS
 
OR 
 
REGISTERED
 
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OF
W
ATERLOO
M
APLE
I
 NC
.M
ATHEMATICA
 
IS
 
A
 
REGISTERED
 
TRADEMARK 
 
OF
W
OLFRAM
ESEARCH
, I
 NC
.XF
REE
86
IS
 
A
 
TRADEMARK 
 
OF
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86 P
ROJECT
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 NC
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V
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AND
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.O
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ARE
 
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OF
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.O
RG
.M
ANY
 
OF
 
THE
 
DESIGNATIONS
 
USED
 
BY
 
MANUFACTURERS
 
AND
 
SELLERS
 
TO
 
DISTINGUISH
 
THEIR 
 
PRODUCTS
 
ARE
 
CLAIMED
 
AS
 
TRADEMARKS
. W
HERE
 
THOSE
 
DESIGNATIONS
 
APPEAR 
 
IN
 
THISDOCUMENT
,
AND
 
THE
F
REE
BSD P
ROJECT
 
WAS
 
AWARE
 
OF
 
THE
 
TRADEMARK 
 
CLAIM
,
THE
 
DESIGNATIONS
 
HAVE
 
BEEN
 
FOLLOWED
 
BY
 
THE
“™”
OR 
 
THE
“®”
SYMBOL
.
[Split HTML/Single HTML]
Table of Contents
PrefaceI.Getting Started1Introduction1.1Synopsis1.2Welcome to FreeBSD!1.3About the FreeBSD Project2Installing FreeBSD2.1Synopsis2.2Hardware Requirements2.3Pre-installation Tasks2.4Starting the Installation2.5Introducing Sysinstall2.6Allocating Disk Space2.7Choosing What to Install2.8Choosing Your Installation Media2.9Committing to the Installation2.10Post-installation2.11Troubleshooting2.12Advanced Installation Guide2.13Preparing Your Own Installation Media3UNIX Basics3.1Synopsis3.2Virtual Consoles and Terminals3.3Permissions3.4Directory Structure3.5Disk Organization3.6Mounting and Unmounting File Systems3.7Processes3.8Daemons, Signals, and Killing Processes3.9Shells3.10Text Editors3.11Devices and Device Nodes3.12Binary Formats3.13For More Information4Installing Applications: Packages and Ports4.1Synopsis4.2Overview of Software Installation4.3Finding Your Application4.4Using the Packages System4.5Using the Ports Collection4.6Post-installation Activities4.7Dealing with Broken Ports5The X Window System5.1Synopsis5.2Understanding X5.3Installing X115.4X11 Configuration5.5Using Fonts in X115.6The X Display Manager 5.7Desktop EnvironmentsII.Common Tasks6Desktop Applications6.1Synopsis6.2Browsers6.3Productivity6.4Document Viewers6.5Finance6.6Summary7Multimedia7.1Synopsis7.2Setting Up the Sound Card7.3MP3 Audio
FreeBSD Handbookhttp://www.freebsd.org/doc/handbook/book.html2 of 8031/16/2011 10:27 AM
 
7.4Video Playback 7.5Setting Up TV Cards7.6Image Scanners8Configuring the FreeBSD Kernel8.1Synopsis8.2Why Build a Custom Kernel?8.3Finding the System Hardware8.4Kernel Drivers, Subsystems, and Modules8.5Building and Installing a Custom Kernel8.6The Configuration File8.7If Something Goes Wrong9Printing9.1Synopsis9.2Introduction9.3Basic Setup9.4Advanced Printer Setup9.5Using Printers9.6Alternatives to the Standard Spooler 9.7Troubleshooting10Linux Binary Compatibility10.1Synopsis10.2Installation10.3Installing Mathematica®10.4Installing Maple™10.5Installing MATLAB®10.6Installing Oracle®10.7Advanced TopicsIII.System Administration11Configuration and Tuning11.1Synopsis11.2Initial Configuration11.3Core Configuration11.4Application Configuration11.5Starting Services11.6Configuring the
cron
Utility11.7Using rc under FreeBSD11.8Setting Up Network Interface Cards11.9Virtual Hosts11.10Configuration Files11.11Tuning with sysctl11.12Tuning Disks11.13Tuning Kernel Limits11.14Adding Swap Space11.15Power and Resource Management11.16Using and Debugging FreeBSD ACPI12The FreeBSD Booting Process12.1Synopsis12.2The Booting Problem12.3The Boot Manager and Boot Stages12.4Kernel Interaction During Boot12.5Device Hints12.6Init: Process Control Initialization12.7Shutdown Sequence13Users and Basic Account Management13.1Synopsis13.2Introduction13.3The Superuser Account13.4System Accounts13.5User Accounts13.6Modifying Accounts13.7Limiting Users13.8Groups14Security14.1Synopsis14.2Introduction14.3Securing FreeBSD14.4DES, Blowfish, MD5, and Crypt14.5One-time Passwords14.6TCP Wrappers14.7
Kerberos5
14.8OpenSSL14.9VPN over IPsec14.10OpenSSH14.11File System Access Control Lists14.12Monitoring Third Party Security Issues14.13FreeBSD Security Advisories14.14Process Accounting
FreeBSD Handbookhttp://www.freebsd.org/doc/handbook/book.html3 of 8031/16/2011 10:27 AM