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C13_Notes(S) Thermochemistry

C13_Notes(S) Thermochemistry

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Published by Farah Aisyah Ahmad

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Published by: Farah Aisyah Ahmad on Jan 16, 2011
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04/21/2013

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4541 CHEMISTRY
 
Chapter 13
 
Chapter 13 : THERMOCHEMISTRY
Thermochemistry is the study of changes in heat energy during chemical reaction.
Two types of chemical reactions :1.Exothermic reaction2.Endothermic reaction
13.1 :
 ENERGY CHANGES 
IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS
1.
Chemical energy is stored within the chemical bonds. During a chemical reaction
, chemical
 
bonds of the reactants are broken
and new
bonds in the products are formed
.
When
bonds are broken
, heat energy is ………………………….
When
bonds are formed
, heat energy is ………………………….
2.
Energy
that is
released
or 
absorbed
is in the form of ……………… energy.
3.
The
energy change
(the difference between the energy of reactants and the products)
 
in a chemicalreaction is called
heat of reaction
, ∆H
.
4.
Heat of reaction,
∆H
is the
energy change
when
one mole
of reactant
reacts
 
or 
when
one mole
of  product is
formed
. 
5.
Two types of reactions that occur are :
 
Exo
thermic
reaction
 
Endo
thermic
reaction
13.1.1
Exo
thermic Reaction
 Example
::
Chapter 13
Thermochemistry
 
+
Bonds are broken in thereactants :
( +1370 kJ heat energy
absorbed 
)
New bonds are formed in theproducts
:(-1856 kJ heat energy
released 
)
2H
2
+ O
2
2H
2
O , ∆H = - 486 kJ
∆H
= Total energy content of products total energy content of reactants=
H
 products
 
 – 
H
reactants
 
4541 CHEMISTRY
 
Chapter 13
 
 Energy change
in the reaction :
Energy change :
H = 1370 - 1856= - 486 kJ
Energy Level Diagram
Energy level diagram shows the total energy content of the reactants compared to the products.
Energy level diagram for 
exothermic
reactions :
 
Energy
 
∆H negative (
heat is released 
)
Total energy content of the products is
less
than total energy of the reactants.
 Example of 
exothermic
reactions
:
 
Chemical equation
 Neutralisation
2KOH + H
2
SO
4
2
SO
4
+ 2 H
2
O
Reaction between acids and metals
Mg + 2HCl → MgCl
2
+ H
2
Reaction between acids and carbonate
 Na
2
CO
3
+ H
2
SO
4
→ Na
2
SO
4
+ H
2
O + CO
2
Combustion of alcohol
C
2
H
5
OH + 3O
2
→ 2CO
2
+ 3H
2
O
Dissolving sodium hydroxide in water 
 NaOH(s) → Na
+
(aq) + OH
-
(aq)
Chapter 13
Thermochemistry
ProductsReactantst/b
 Interpretation
 
:
The quantity of 
energy absorbed 
 
for bonds breaking betweenhydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms are ……………….. than
energy released 
 
for the formation of bonds between hydrogenand oxygen atoms.
…………. bonds are broken and ………….. bonds are formed
.
Heat is
released 
to the surrounding
temperature
 
increases
.
The sign of 
∆H is
…………………….
Energy change :
Chemical 
energy →
 Heat 
energy
Total energy content are
decreased 
.
Total energy content of the product is
lower 
/less
 
than total energy of the reactants.
2H
2
+ O
2
Energy
Energyabsorbed+1370 kJEnergyreleased-1856 kJ
H = - 486 kJ2H
2
O
The value of 
H is
-486 kJ
 The heat released from bond formation is
 greater 
than heat absorbed for bond breaking.A
negative
sign for 
H shows that heat is
released 
.
lowerWeak strongnegative
 
4541 CHEMISTRY
 
Chapter 13
 
Adding water to concentrated acid.
H
2
SO
4
(aq) 2H
+
(aq) + SO
42-
(aq)
13.1.2
Endo
thermic Reaction
Energy Change in Endothermic Reaction:
Energy
 
Energy Level Diagram
Energy level diagram shows the total energy content of the reactants compared to the products .
Energy level diagram for exothermic reactions :
 
Energy
 
∆H positive (
heat is absorbed 
)
 
Total energy content of the products is
 greater 
/more
 
than total energy of the reactants.
 Example of 
endothermic
reactions
:
 
Chemical equation
Decomposition of nitrate and carbonate saltwhen heated
CaCO
3
 
CaO + CO
2
Decomposition of hydrated salt toanhydrous salt and water when heated
 CuSO
4
.5H
2
O(s) CuSO
4
(s) + 5H
2
O(l)(blue)
(white)
Dissolving ammonium salts/nitrate salts inwater 
 
 H 
2
O
 NH
4
Cl(s) NH
4+
(aq) + Cl
-
(aq) 
Chapter 13
Thermochemistry
Interpretation :
The quantity of energy 
absorbed 
 
for bonds breaking is ……… thanenergy 
released 
 
from the formation of bonds.………... bonds are broken and ………... bonds are formed.Heat is
absorbed 
from the surrounding
temperature
 
decreases
The sign of 
∆H is
…………………….Energy change :
 Heat 
energy →
Chemical 
 energyTotal energy content are
increased 
.
Total energy content of the product is
more
than total energy of the reactants.
Energyabsorbed(+ve)
Reactants
Energyreleased( -ve)
Hpositive
Products
Products
 b
ReactantsStronghigherweak positive

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