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Types of Reactions Lab Report

Types of Reactions Lab Report

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Robert Batson7
th
period Honors ChemistryDr. Moody12 December 2010
Chemical Reaction Types lab report:Introduction:
The purpose of the lab was to create a demonstration that presented four types of chemical reactions (synthesis, decomposition, single-displacement, and double-displacement). Each type of chemical reaction has different properties and have differentindicators that a reaction has occurred. The experiment exposed other compounds to eachother or put a compound against conditions that would cause a chemical reaction, such asa compound being exposed to heat. The lab was broken into four parts. The first lab wasa demonstration of synthesis.Synthesis is a type of chemical reactions in which two compounds or elements areintroduced to each other and produce a single product. The equation for synthesis is
A + B → AB
Synthesis occurs naturally and can be produced for important chemical productsused for the market. Natural synthesis occurs in organisms and an example of organicsynthesis is the separation of gas from natural gas compounds. Synthesis is also used for the production of consumer products such as a drugs, dye, or flavoring.Decomposition is the chemical process in which a compound breaks down intomolecules or smaller compounds. It’s essentially the opposite of synthesis. Thedecomposition in the lab was a decomposition of Copper (II) Carbonate. Decompositionis driven by influences to the original composition. It is represented by the equation
AB → A + B
Single displacement reactions are when one element replaces another element in acompound to form a new compound. In single displacement reactions the element that is being displaced is reduced. The single displacement formula is
AX + B → AB + X
In the equation the A or B must be either a non-metal or a halogen. In singledisplacement reactions there are cation replacements and anion replacements.The labuses an aluminum sample and exposes it to copper chloride. This is an example of ananion replacement.
 
Materials and Methods:
Materials included in the experiment include standard labequipment, samples of Magnesium, dioxide, copper carbonate (III), aluminum foil,copper chloride, AgNO
3
, CuSO
4
, Fe(NO
3
)
3
, KI, KSCN, and a sample tray.For the first experiment burn magnesium and observe the reaction. For the secondlab heat copper (II) carbonate in a test tube and observe the reaction. For the third lab adda small piece of aluminum to a test tube. Cover the aluminum foil with copper chlorideand observe the reaction after several minutes.The fourth lab calls for an arrangement of each sample (AgNO
3
, CuSO
4
,Fe(NO
3
)
3
, KI, KSCN) so that each sample interacts with one another and observe allreactions.
Results:
The first experiment can be represented by the equation2Mg + O
2
→ 2MgOThe magnesium reacted with the flame and changed color to produce MagnesiumOxideThe second lab showed the decomposition of copper (II) carbonate to carbondioxide and copper oxide. The compound changed color from blue to black. It isrepresented by the chemical equationCuCO
3
→ CO
2
+ CuOThe third lab was a reaction between an aluminum sample and copper chloride.Bubbles and black pigment appeared near the aluminum sample. Heat was produced bythe reaction. It can be represented by the chemical equationHave Dr. Moody show you an equationHave Dr. Moody show you an equationThe fourth lab was multiple reactions that were all examples of double-displacement chemical reactions. The table below demonstrates the reactions andobservations made.
AgNO
3
CuSO
4
Fe(NO
3
)
3
KIKSCNAgNO
3
x
CloudyCloudy-OrangeExploded/SolidifiedExploded/White
CuSO
4
Cloudy
x
 NoreactionYellow-OrangeGreen
Fe(NO
3
)
3
Cloudy-OrangeNoreaction
x
OrangeBlac
KI
Exploded/SolidifiedYellow-OrangeOrange
x
 No Reaction
KSCN
Explodes/WhiteCloudGreenBlackNo Reaction
xDiscussion:
In the first lab the magnesium reacted with the flame by producingmagnesium oxide. This is an example of synthesis. Synthesis can occur naturally but alsowhen one compound or molecule is introduced to another. The reaction occurred becausethe magnesium sample was introduced to the flame. It follows the synthesis formula of 
 
A + B → AB or (in the case of the lab) 2Mg + O
2
→ 2MgOThe reason it needed to be two magnesium molecules is because all chemicalequations must be balanced. The magnesium oxide product appeared as a white powder.The transition of states of matter was from solid and gas to solid. The signs of a chemicalreaction taking place was color change and an odor that emitted. Magnesium Oxide is anaturally occurring mineral that can form inside of your body. It is used to supplymagnesium to your body which is necessary for health of nerves and muscles. So thechemical reaction that was observed in the lab occurs in humans’ bodies naturally all thetime.The second lab was a demonstration of decomposition. The reaction occurredwhen the compound copper (II) carbonate was heated. The compound decomposed tocarbon dioxide and copper oxide. The products exposure to heat is what leads to itsdecomposition. Decomposition can best be represented by the formulaAB → A + BDecomposition often occurs when a compound is introduced to heat or lack of heat. The lab exemplifies this. Indicators that a chemical reaction had occurred was asmell and the compound had changed to a black color The third lab was an example of a single displacement reaction. The aluminumfoil reacted copper chloride by yielding bubbles and black pigment. Also heat wasexerted by the reaction. The single displacement formula isAB + X → AX + BWith that formula Robert formed the chemical equation that would apply to thelab. The result isCuCl + Al → CuAl + ClThere is room for error in that equation for there could be more molecules thatwere not accounted for. The reason the reaction took a relatively long time is because ittook several moments for each molecule of aluminum to displace the chlorine molecules.Heat was exerted because of the kinetic energies of the molecules rearranging whichcould lead to a hypothesis stating that all single (or double) displacement reactions exertheat due to the exchange of molecules.The final lab was a demonstration of double-displacement reactions. Eachreaction that occurred in the twenty-five wells was a double-displacement reaction.Almost every reaction produced a precipitate of solid. Some samples had violentreactions while others no visible reaction took place. All of the samples produced heatwhich supports the previous stated hypothesis that all displacement reactions produceheat. Some compounds exploded when introduced to others. A reaction like this occurswhen the process of the displacement of molecules rearranges and collides. There arethree switches downstairs. Each corresponds to one of the three light bulbs in the attic.You can turn the switches on and off and leave them in any position. How would youidentify which switch corresponds to which light bulb, if you are only allowed one tripupstairs? In the lab reactions that introduced the same compound to each other were notaccounted for. There was no room for human error unless ridiculous proportions wereused.Each lab illustrated how each kind of chemical reaction contrasts and influencesinvolved in the reactions. I would still like to pursue the displacement causing heathypothesis in further experimentation.

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