receptor is an inhibitorychannel which, when activated, decreases neuronal activity. Benzodiazepines do not supplement for theneurotransmitter GABA, rather benzodiazepines such as diazepam bind to a different location on theGABA
receptor with the result that the effects of GABA are enhanced. Benzodiazepines cause anincreased opening of the chloride ion channel when GABA binds to its site on the GABA
receptor leadingto more chloride ions entering the neuron which in turn leads to enhanced central nervous systemdepressant effects. The muscle relaxant properties of diazepam are produced via inhibition of polysynapticpathways in the spinal cord.
is aproton pump inhibitor (brand names
in Belgium and South Africa) developed and marketed by AstraZenecawhich is used in the treatment of dyspepsia,peptic ulcer disease(PUD),
gastroesophageal reflux disease(GORD/GERD) andZollinger-Ellison syndrome. Esomeprazole
-enantiomer of omeprazole(marketed as Losec/Prilosec), and AstraZeneca claims
improvedefficacyof this single enantiomer product over theracemicmixture of omeprazole.
However, this greater efficacy has been disputed, with some claiming it offers no benefit from itsolder form.SIDE EFFECTCommon side effects include headache, diarrhea, nausea, gas, decreased appetite,constipation, dry mouth, and abdominal pain. More severe side effects are severe allergicreactions, chest pain, dark urine, fast heartbeat, fever, paresthesia, persistent sore throat,severe stomach pain, unusual bruising or bleeding, unusual tiredness, and yellowing of the eyesor skinProton pump inhibitors may be associated with a greater risk of hip fracturesandclostridiumdifficile-associated diarrhea Patients are frequently administered the drugs in intensive care as aprotective measure against ulcers, but this use is also associated with a 30% increase inoccurrence of pneumonia.
is anitroimidazole antibioticmedication used particularly for anaerobic bacteria
andprotozoa. Metronidazole is an antibiotic, amebicide, and antiprotozoal.
It is the drug of choice for first episodes of mild-to-moderate
It is marketed byPfizer under the trade name
in the US, bySanofi-Aventisglobally under the sametradename
, in Pakistan it is also available with the brand name of
manufacturedand marketed by Star Laboratories. In Thailand it is marketed as
by Thai NakhornPatana. They are also marketed in UK by Milpharm Limited.MOAMetronidazole, taken up by diffusion, is selectively absorbed byanaerobic bacteriaandsensitiveprotozoa. Once taken up by anaerobes, it is non-enzymatically reduced by reactingwith reducedferredoxin, which is generated by pyruvate oxido-reductase. This reduction causesthe production of toxic products to anaerobic cells, and allows for selective accumulation inanaerobes.