Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
4Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Chapter 7. Micro

Chapter 7. Micro

Ratings: (0)|Views: 394|Likes:
reviewer mcr-prs :)
reviewer mcr-prs :)

More info:

Categories:Types, Reviews
Published by: Charis Joyce Bernardino Cauyao on Jan 17, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

01/17/2011

pdf

text

original

 
Chapter 7: Microbial Nutrition, Ecology, and Growth7.1 Microbial Nutrition
Nutrition
: a process by which chemical substances (
nutrients
) are acquired from the environment and used incellular activities
A
ll living things require a source of elements such as C, H, O, P, K, N, S, Ca, Fe, Na, Cl, Mg- but the relativeamounts vary depending on the microbe
Essential Nutrient
: any substances that must be provided to an organism
 ±
 
Macronutrients
: Required in relatively large quantities, play principal roles in cell structure andmetabolism (ex. C, H, O)
 ±
 
Micronutrients
:
 
aka trace elements, present in smaller amounts and involved in enzyme function andmaintenance of protein structure (ex. Mn, Zn, Ni)
Nutrients are processed and transformed into the chemicals of the cell after absorption
Can also categorize nutrients according to C content
 ±
 
Inorganic nutrients:
A
combination of atoms other than C and H
 ±
 
Organic nutrients: Contain C and H, usually the products of living things
 ±
 
Chemical Analysis of Microbial CytoplasmSources of Essential Nutrients:
Carbon Sources
T
he majority of C compounds involved in normal structure and metabolism of all cells are organic
H
eterotroph
: Must obtain C in organic form (nutritionally dependent on other living things)
Autotroph
:
 
Uses inorganic CO
2
as its carbon source (not nutritionally dependent on other living things)Nitrogen Sources
Main reservoir- N
2
 
Primary nitrogen source for heterotrophs- proteins, DN
A
, RN
A
 
Some bacteria and algae utilize inorganic nitrogenous nutrients
Small number can transform N
2
into usable compounds through nitrogen fixation
Regardless of the initial form, must be converted to NH
3
(the only form that can be directly combined with C tosynthesize amino acids and other compounds)Oxygen Sources-
 
O is a major component of organic compounds-
 
A
lso a common component of inorganic salts-
 
O
2
makes up 20% of the atmosphereHydrogen Sources-
 
H is a major element in all organic and several inorganic compounds-
 
Performs overlapping roles in the biochemistry of cells:-
 
Maintaining
p
H
 -
 
Forming
hydrogen bonds
between molecules-
 
Serving as the source of 
free energy
in oxidation-reduction reactions of respirationPhosphorus (Phosphate) Sources-
 
Main inorganic source of phosphorus is phosphate (PO
43-
)
 
-
 
Derived from phosphoric acid-
 
mFound in rocks and oceanic mineral deposits-
 
Key component in nucleic acids-
 
A
lso found in
AT
P-
 
Phospholipids in cell membranes and coenzymesSulfur Sources-
 
Widely distributed throughout the environment in mineral form-
 
Essential component of some vitamins-
 
A
mino acids- methionine and cysteineOther Nutrients Important in microbial Metabolism
Potassium- protein synthesis and membrane function
Sodium- certain types of cell transport
Calcium- stabilizer of cell walls and endospores
Magnesium- component of chlorophyll and stabilizer of membranes and ribosomes
Iron- important component of cytochrome proteins
Zinc- essential regulatory element for eukaryotic genetics, and binding factors for enzymes
Cooper, cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, manganese, silicon, iodine, and boron- needed in small amounts by somemicrobes but not others
Growth Factors: Essential Organic NutrientsGrowth factor:
 
A
n organic compound such as an amino acid, nitrogenous base, or vitamin that cannot be synthesizedby an organism and must be provided as a nutrientFor example, many cells cannot synthesize all 20 amino acids so they must obtain them from food (essential aminoacids)
Main Determinants of Nutritional TypeSources of carbon and energy:Phototrophs
- Microbes that photosynthesize
Chemotrophs
- Microbes that gain energy from chemical compounds
Autotrophs and Their Energy Sources
Photoautotrophs
 
 ±
 
Photosynthetic
 ±
 
Form the basis for most food webs
Chemoautotrophs
 
 ±
 
Chemoorganic autotrophs- use organic compounds for energy and inorganic compounds as a carbonsource
 ±
 
L
ithoautotrophs
- rely totally on inorganic minerals
 ±
 
Methanogens
- produce methane from hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide
A
rchae
Some live in extreme habitats
 
H
eterotrophs and Their Energy Sources
 ±
 
Majority are
chemoheterotrophs
that derive both carbon and energy from organic compounds
Saprobes
 
 ±
 
Free-living microorganisms
 ±
 
Feed primarily on organic detritus from dead organisms
 ±
 
Decomposers of plant litter, animal matter, and dead microbes
 ±
 
Most have rigid cell wall, so they release enzymes to the extracellular environment and digestfood particles into smaller molecules
»
Obligate saprobes- exist strictly on dead organic matter in soil and water
»
Facultative parasite- when a saprobe infects a host, usually when the host iscompromised (opportunistic pathogen)
Other ChemoheterotrophsParasites
 -
 
Derive nutrients from the cells or tissues of a host-
 
A
lso called
pathogens
because they cause damage to tissues or even death-
 
Ectoparasites- live on the body-
 
Endoparasites- live in organs and tissues-
 
Intracellular parasites- live within cells-
 
Obligate parasites- unable to grow outside of a living host-
 
Transport Mechanisms for Nutrient Absorption
-
 
Cells must take nutrients in and transport waste out-
 
T
ransport occurs across the cell membrane, even in organisms with cell walls
The Movement of Water: Osmosis
Osmosis
: Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
The membrane is selectively permeable
- having passageways that allow free diffusion of water but can blockcertain other dissolved molecules
When the membrane is between solutions of differing concentrations and the solute is not diffusible, water willdiffuse at a fast rate from the side that has more water to the side that has less water
Osmotic Relationships
T
he osmotic relationship between cells and their environment is determined by the relative concentrations of the solutions on either side of the cell membrane
I
sotonic:
T
he environment is equal in solute concentration to the cells internal environment
 ±
 
No net change in cell volume
 ±
 
Generally the most stable environment for cells
H
ypotonic:
 
T
he solute concentration of the external environment is lower than that of the cells internalenvironment
 ±
 
Net direction of osmosis is from the hypotonic solution into the cell
 ±
 
Cells without cell walls swell and can burst
H
ypertonic
:
T
he environment has a higher solute concentration than the cytoplasm
 ±
 
Will force water to diffuse out of a cell
 ±
 
Said to have high osmotic pressure

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->