Volume 1, number
OPTICS COMMUNICATIONS July/August 1969
DEBLURRING OF MOTION-BLURRED PHOTOGRAPHSUSING EXTENDED-RANGE HOLOGRAPHIC FOURIER-TRANSFORM DIVISIONGeorge
and Donald R. LAMBERTY
Electro-Optical Sciences Center, State University
New York,Stony Brook, New York
June 1969The method of a posteriori image-correcting deconvolution by holographic Fourier-transform division(Stroke and Zech, Physics Letters 25A (1967) 89) has been successfully extended to the deblurring ofphotographs blurred by motion with the aid of
negative) nmaskingn process,used to obtain the required great linear dynamic range (especially in the Fourier-transform domain), inanticipation of extended-range high-resolution films now under development.
There has arisen an increasing interest inmethods which permit one to extract
posterioria sharpened image from
a result of various instrumental and recordingimperfections, including blurring by atmosphericturbulence and indeed by motion. In a generalway optical image deblurring methods are basedon the principles of 'spatial filtering' describedby Mar6chal and Croce
Considerable successin implementing these principles were demon-strated already
decade ago by Tsujiuchi who showed that the required complex (amplitudeand phase) filters  could be realized by
com-bination of two filters: the amplitude filter,realized by photography, and the phase filter,realized by vacuum evaporation. The Tsujiuchimethod
particularly suitable for the prepara-tion of filters which may be described in analyti-cal form. It has been used, for instance, to de-blurr images blurred by artificial (laboratory)turbulence and indeed for certain types of motion. Several other image-deblurring methodshave also been demonstrated, including digital-computer implementation of the required Fourier-transform division  as well
purely elec-tronic methods, particularly suitable in conjunc-tion
The relativemerits of these and other methods are formingthe subject of current investigations
numberof authors. Somewhat in analogy with the resultsof the investigations of Jacquinot and Chabbal,with regard to relative merits of various formsof spectroscopy, it
probable that each of theimage-deblurring methods may be particularlysuitable for some types of applications, while
necessarily being the most powerful generalmethod. However,
keeping with the suggestionby Stroke and Zech
has become increasing-ly apparent
the most general method for op-tical image deblurring will no doubt be mostreadily implemented by holographic means. Thegeneral background for the holographic imagedeblurring methods may be found
refs. [8-111,in which we also discuss the difference betweenthe holographic image restoration methods (solu-tion of an integral equation) on the one hand, and,on the other, the correlative character recogni-tion methods  Vormation of an integral equa-tion).
addition to the methods of refs. [8-111,which use a holographically synthesized filter forthe purpose of solving the integral equation (con-volution integral) by division in
spatial Four-ier-transform domain, Stroke [13,14] has alsoproposed
of holographic methodwhich permits one to achieve 'image-deblurring'as well as 'aperture synthesis' simply by takinga hologram of the blurred photograph and by
with the light from the spread func-tion
in one of the arrangements. Thesemethods [13,14] are particularly suitable for thecase when the auto-correlation function of thespread function
sharply peaked. Detailedcomparison of the various holographic methodsare given in ref. . It may be of interest tofurther note that spatial Fourier-transform
Visiting staff, from the Photographisches Institut(Director, Professor Dr.
Berg), Eidgen6s-sische Technische Hochschule, Zurich.
Visiting staff, from the CBS Laboratories, Stam-ford, Connecticut.