P. 1
Ch9-Sources of Magnetic Fields

# Ch9-Sources of Magnetic Fields

Ratings:

5.0

(1)
|Views: 5,313|Likes:

### Availability:

See more
See less

05/09/2014

pdf

text

original

Sources of Magnetic Fields
9.1

Biot-Savart Law
Currents which arise due to the motion of charges are the source of magnetic fields.When charges move in a conducting wire and produce a current
I
, the magnetic field atany point
P
due to the current can be calculated by adding up the magnetic fieldcontributions,
, from small segments of the wire
Bs
, (Figure 9.1.1).
Figure 9.1.1
Magnetic field
B
at point
P
due to a current-carrying element
I d
s
.These segments can be thought of as a vector quantity having a magnitude of the lengthof the segment and pointing in the direction of the current flow. The infinitesimal currentsource can then be written as
I d
s
.Let
denote as the distance form the current source to the field point
P
, and thecorresponding unit vector. The Biot-Savart law gives an expression for the magnetic fieldcontribution,
, from the current source,
ˆ
r
B
I
s
,
02
ˆ4
I d
µ π
×=
srB
(
9
.
1
.1)where
0
µ
is a constant called the
permeability of free space
:(
9
.
1
.2)
70
410Tm/A
µ π
= ×
Notice that the expression is remarkably similar to the Coulomb’s law for the electricfield due to a charge element
dq
:
20
1ˆ4
dq
πε
=
Er
(
9
.
1
.3)Adding up these contributions to find the magnetic field at the point
P
requiresintegrating over the current source,2