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Ch9-Sources of Magnetic Fields

Ch9-Sources of Magnetic Fields

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Published by: mehdii.heidary1366 on Aug 12, 2008
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Chapter 9
 
Sources of Magnetic Fields
 
: Magnet Suspended Between Two Coils........................................449.10 Problem-Solving Strategies.................................................................................459.10.1 Biot-Savart Law:...........................................................................................459.10.2 Ampere’s law:...............................................................................................479.11 Solved Problems..................................................................................................489.11.1 Magnetic Field of a Straight Wire................................................................489.11.2 Current-Carrying Arc....................................................................................509.11.3 Rectangular Current Loop.............................................................................519.11.4 Hairpin-Shaped Current-Carrying Wire........................................................539.11.5 Two Infinitely Long Wires...........................................................................549.11.6 Non-Uniform Current Density......................................................................569.11.7 Thin Strip of Metal........................................................................................589.11.8 Two Semi-Infinite Wires..............................................................................609.12 Conceptual Questions..........................................................................................619.13 Additional Problems............................................................................................629.13.1 Application of Ampere's Law.......................................................................629.13.2 Magnetic Field of a Current Distribution from Ampere's Law.....................629.13.3 Cylinder with a Hole.....................................................................................639.13.4 The Magnetic Field Through a Solenoid......................................................649.13.5 Rotating Disk................................................................................................649.13.6 Four Long Conducting Wires.......................................................................649.13.7 Magnetic Force on a Current Loop...............................................................659.13.8 Magnetic Moment of an Orbital Electron.....................................................659.13.9 Ferromagnetism and Permanent Magnets.....................................................669.13.10 Charge in a Magnetic Field.........................................................................679.13.11 Permanent Magnets.....................................................................................679.13.12 Magnetic Field of a Solenoid......................................................................679.13.13 Effect of Paramagnetism.............................................................................681
 
Sources of Magnetic Fields
9.1
 
Biot-Savart Law
Currents which arise due to the motion of charges are the source of magnetic fields.When charges move in a conducting wire and produce a current
 I 
, the magnetic field atany point
P
due to the current can be calculated by adding up the magnetic fieldcontributions,
, from small segments of the wire
Bs
, (Figure 9.1.1).
Figure 9.1.1
Magnetic field
B
at point
P
due to a current-carrying element
 I d 
s
.These segments can be thought of as a vector quantity having a magnitude of the lengthof the segment and pointing in the direction of the current flow. The infinitesimal currentsource can then be written as
 I d 
s
.Let
denote as the distance form the current source to the field point
P
, and thecorresponding unit vector. The Biot-Savart law gives an expression for the magnetic fieldcontribution,
, from the current source,
ˆ
r
B
I
s
,
02
ˆ4
 I d 
µ π 
×=
srB
(
9
.
1
.1)where
0
µ 
is a constant called the
 permeability of free space
:(
9
.
1
.2)
70
410Tm/A
µ π 
= ×
 Notice that the expression is remarkably similar to the Coulomb’s law for the electricfield due to a charge element
dq
:
20
1ˆ4
dq
πε 
=
Er
(
9
.
1
.3)Adding up these contributions to find the magnetic field at the point
P
requiresintegrating over the current source,2

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