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Published by: soujanyak21 on Jan 18, 2011
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O. Ucak, I. Kocabas, A. Terciyanli
TUBITAK- Space Technologies Research Institute, Power Electronics GroupMETU Campus, TR 06531, Ankara, TURKEY 
Active power filter, hybrid filter 
passivefilter, current harmonic
ABSTRACTThis paper presents a shunt hybrid active power filterapplication mainly for current harmonic elimination andfixed reactive power compensation. The proposed systemconsists of a small rated voltage source active powerfilter and a series of LC passive filter connected to eachphase. Besides, no additional switching filter is requiredfor the current ripples. Effectiveness of the system isconfirmed by the experimental results obtained from alaboratory prototype.
Voltage and current harmonics has become a serious problem in transmission and distribution systems inrecent years. To solve the current harmonic related problems, passive filters connected in several circuitconfigurations present a low cost solution. However, passive filter implementations to filter out the currentharmonics have the following disadvantages:
Possibility of resonances with the sourceimpedance
Supply impedance dependent system performance
Fixed compensationIn order to diminish the preceding disadvantages of the passive filters, active power filters (APF) have been worked on and developed in recent years.Elimination of the current harmonics, reactive power compensation and voltage regulation are the mainfunctions of active filters for the improvement of  power quality. There exist several active power filter topologies in the literature in accordance with their circuit configurations and connection types [1].Among these configurations, conventional parallelvoltage source active power filter, shown in Fig-1.a, iswidely used. The DC link capacitor voltage is requiredto be higher than the peak value of the utility voltage;otherwise, the generated compensation currents cannot be injected to the mains [2]. So, for high power applications, the required high DC link voltagerestricts the active power filter implementations due to  the increase in the losses, rating and the total cost of the APF. As a result, various hybrid filter topologieshave been developed which combine the advantagesof both the passive and the active filters [3]. Withinthese topologies, shunt hybrid filters formed with theuse of a three phase voltage source PWM inverter anda series connected LC passive filter are superior to theconventional shunt APFs due to the reduced DC link voltage and the converter rating. The series connectedLC filter absorbs the current harmonics arising fromthe non-linear load; however, the filteringcharacteristic of just the passive filter itself is notsatisfactory. Hence, active filter is used to improve thefiltering performance of the overall system. In this paper, a hybrid filter (Fig-1.b) formed by a low-rated APF and a LC passive filter tuned to 350 Hz is presented. The proposed filter ensures a low DC link voltage and a superior filtering performance by theapplied feedback and feedforward control methods. Inaddition, no switching ripple filter is used since theLC filter also operates as a switching ripple filter athigh frequencies. The start up procedure used in thelaboratory and the experimental results obtained froma 300V laboratory prototype are also presented toshow the effectiveness of the overall system.Fig-1 (a) Voltage Source APF (b) Hybrid Power Filter 
i) Voltage Reference Generation
Synchronous reference frame method is used tocalculate the harmonic components of the mainscurrent [4, 5]. Three phase supply voltage and currentvectors are transformed into d (direct) and q(quadrature) frames rotating at the fundamentalfrequency w1 by applying Clarke & Park transformations. For this reason the fundamentalcomponent of the mains current turns out to be a DCsignal and the harmonic components which are stillAC signals are rotating with respect to the referenceframe. Harmonic current components are extracted bya second order high pass filter with 20 Hz cut off frequency. Applying inverse Clarke & Park transformations reproduces the supply harmoniccurrent components in abc frames. Each harmoniccomponent is amplified by a gain of K to obtain avoltage reference for each phase.DC voltage control is maintained by a PI regulator andthe current reference (∆id1) obtained in the proposedcontrol method is added to the reactive currentcomponent I
(Fig-2).Moreover, since the feedback gain K is limited to thecertain values due to the stability problems of thesystem, additional feedforward control loop (Fig-2) is  presented [6, 7] for the elimination of 5
harmoniccurrent component. The reference voltages in the proposed feedforward control are generated by using250 Hz components of the load currents as indicatedin eqn-1.
= Rf * ild
+ (-w
*Lf + 1/ (w
*Cf)) * ilq
= (w
*Lf - 1/ (w
*Cf)) * ild
+ Rf * ilq
= -5w
ii) Modulation Method 
Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) is usedas the modulation method. The voltage references(V
, V
, V
) formed by the feedback, feedforwardand the DC link voltage control are compared with a12.5 kHz carrier wave to obtain the gate signals of thesemiconductors.Fig-2 Voltage Reference Generation in Synchronous Reference Frame
iii) Passive filter configuration and filtering characteristics
In the proposed system, conventional APF isconnected in series with a passive LC filter. LC passive filter is tuned to a dominant harmoniccomponent [8] and the active filter acts as a dampingresistor which also improves the filteringcharacteristics of the overall system. Since the passivefilter tuned at 350 Hz shows lower impedance at550Hz and 650 Hz than a passive filter tuned at 250Hz, it has better filtering characteristics when 11
harmonics are taken into account. LC passivefilter tuned at 350 Hz amplifies the 5
harmoniccurrent components at the mains side; however, it issuppressed by the active power filter with the appliedfeedback and feedforward control explained above.Fig-3 illustrates the single phase equivalent circuit of the system and the harmonic equivalent circuit of thesystem when the feedback control loop is applied. Theload is shown as an ideal current source and the APFis considered as a voltage source. When active filter isnot connected (K=0) the following relation takes place between the supply and the load harmonic currents.(Eqn-2)As the APF is connected to the system with the proposed feedback control, the feedback gain K actsas a damping resistor which suppress the resonance between the supply and the passive filter. The mainsharmonic current is now as indicated in Eqn-3:(Eqn-3)
iv) Experimental System
 A 300 V laboratory prototype has been implementedwith the specified system parameters in Table-I. The proposed control algorithm is implemented on aDigital Signal Processor (DSP) of Texas Instrumentswhich is ezDSP28F12. In the experimental set up,additional series resistors (R) and contactors (S1, S2)are used for the start up procedure of the proposedsystem. The experimental circuit configuration isshown in Fig-4 and a view from the laboratory prototype is given in Fig-5. The start up procedure [7]is as follows:
Initially, three upper IGBTs are turned ONand three lower IGBTs are turned OFF.During this time interval, active filter is notoperating, and DC side of the active filter isseen as a short circuit by the mains side.
When S1 is turned on, the system operatesonly as a passive LC filter, and to avoid anyinrush current, S2 is remained OFF so thathybrid filter is connected to the supplythrough the resistors R for a predefined timeduration t.
After 5 cycles have passed, S2 is turned ONand the hybrid filter is directly connected tothe mains.Fig-3 (a) Single phase equivalent circuit (b)Harmonic equivalent circuitTable-I Experimental System ParametersLine voltage 300 V-rmsLine frequency 50 HzSupply inductance 343 uHRectifier inductance 1.5 mHFilter Capacitor 120 uFFilter Inductor 1.8 mHTuned freq. of series filter 342 HzAPF rating
1.47 kVA
DC link capacitor 1.3 mF
Fig-4 Experimental SystemFig-5 Hybrid Power Filter Prototype

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